Table of Contents

  • KERMAN xiii. Zoroastrians of 19th-Century Yazd and Kerman

    Janet Kestenberg Amighi

    The main focus of this entry is on the nature of pressures exerted on the Zoroastrians of Yazd and Kerman to convert away from their religion, and the Zoroastrian responses of both conversion and persistence during the 19th century. It will cover four themes: Muslim treatment of Zoroastrians and pressures to convert, Zoroastrian modes of resistance and submission, the Parsi contribution to Zoroastrian revivalism, and a comparison of Zoroastrian responses to Muslim pressures to convert versus responses to Bahai forms of proselytization.

  • KERMAN xiv. Jewish Community Of Kerman City

    Nahid Pirnazar and EIr

    In the late 18th century, according to the account of the Jewish community of Yazd compiled by Molla Aqābābā Damāvandi a century later, severe drought caused its members to move to Rafsanjān and Sirjān and the villages around Kerman. Thus the Jewish Quarter of nineteenth-century Kerman became mainly an offshoot of the community in Yazd.

  • KERMAN xv. Carpet Industry

    James M. Gustafson

    Since the late 19th century, Kerman’s hand-woven, knotted pile carpets are widely regarded as among the finest in the world by art historians and collectors for the quality of their materials and workmanship. 

  • KERMAN xvi. Languages

    Habib Borjian

    The province of Kerman is characterized by two indigenous languages, Persian in the mountainous north and Garmsiri in the lowland south, supplemented by the Median-type dialects spoken by the Zoroastrian, Jewish, and possibly Turkish residence of the city of Kerman.

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    Multiple Authors

    a province in western Iran; also the name of its principal city and capital.

  • KERMANSHAH i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    Kermanshah Province, situated in western Iran, spreads over an area of 25,000 km² (9,560 square miles, roughly the size of Vermont), or 1.5 percent of the total area of the country.

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  • KERMANSHAH iv. History from the Arab Conquest to 1953

    Jean Calmard

    The town and province of Kermanshah are located on the strategic travel route, later known as the “Khorasan Highway,” linking Mesopotamia to the Iranian plateau. This route was militarily and commercially important even in antiquity.

  • KERMANSHAH vii. Languages and Dialects

    Habib Borjian

    Kermanshah is linguistically characterized by a triad of Kurdish, Gurāni, and Persian within a multifaceted, areal-tribal-social setting; supplemented by Neo-Aramaic spoken in pockets by area Jewry, as well as an isolated Turkic dialect spoken in the Sonqor valley.

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  • KERMANSHAH viii. The Jewish Community

    Nahid Pirnazar

    Surviving the obscure period of the Middle Ages, the Jews of Kermanshah were not affected by the forced conversions under the Safavids.


    Erik S. Ohlander

    term for the tattered cloak, robe, or overshirt traditionally worn by the Sufis as a symbol of wayfaring on the mystical path.