Table of Contents

  • KHALAJ ii. Language

    Michael Knüppel

    spoken by the inhabitants of Khalaj, located approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran.


    Lolita Nehru

    in Surxondaryo prov., southern Uzbekistan, site of a settlement and palace of the nomad Yuezhi, with paintings and sculptures of the mid-1st century BCE. The Yuezhi, and perhaps other nomad groups, overthrew the Hellenistic Greek dynasty which had ruled there since the mid-3rd century as successor to the post-Achaemenid governments of Alexander and the Seleucids.

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  • KHALILI, Abbas

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1895-1971), political activist, journalist, translator, poet, and novelist.


    Marcel Bazin

    the southeasternmost district of Azerbaijan.  Its main city and administrative center, Heruābād, is located at lat 37°28′ N, long 48°31′ E. 


    ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Āḏarang and EIr

    prominent scholar of Persian language and literature, poet, essayist, translator, literary critic, university professor, and founding editor of the periodical Soḵan.

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    Alvand Bahari

    (1922-2010), Persian logician and scholar and a permanent member of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Farhangestān-e zabān va adab-e fārsi). His works range from Manṭeq-e ṣuri (Formal logic, 1959) to translations of Porphyry’s Isagoge and Aristotle’s Categories (2005) and a critical edition of Mollā Ṣadrā’s Iqāẓ-al-nāʾemin (2008).

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    D.T. Potts

    island in the Persian Gulf, situated at about 30 km northwest of Bandar-e Rig and 52 km northwest of Bušehr.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    sect of early Islam which arose out of the conflict between ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61) and Moʿāwiya b. Abi Sufyān (r. 661-80).

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vii. Translations into Italian

    Mario Casari

    The reception of Khayyam’s poetic work in Italy, as in the rest of Europe, was the result of the translation and rewriting of the English poet Edward FitzGerald (d. 1883) in the years 1859-79.  In Italy the more scholarly approach to Khayyam’s work by a few dedicated Iranists proceeded at a fitful pace over many decades.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. As Mathematician

    Bijan Vahabzadeh

    Three mathematical treatises of Omar Khayyam have come down to us: (1) a commentary on Euclid’s Elements; (2) an essay on the division of the quadrant of a circle; (3) a treatise on algebra; he also wrote (4) the treatise on the extraction of the nth root of the numbers, which is not extant.

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