Table of Contents

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR vi. As Mathematician

    Bijan Vahabzadeh

    Three mathematical treatises of Omar Khayyam have come down to us: (1) a commentary on Euclid’s Elements; (2) an essay on the division of the quadrant of a circle; (3) a treatise on algebra; he also wrote (4) the treatise on the extraction of the nth root of the numbers, which is not extant.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR ix. ILLUSTRATIONS OF ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF THE RUBAIYAT

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contain some of the best-known verses in the world. The book is also one of the most frequently and widely illustrated of all literary works. The stimulus to illustrate Khayyam’s Rubaiyat came initially from outside Persia, in response to translations in the West.

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  • KHAYYAM, OMAR x. MUSICAL WORKS BASED ON THE RUBAIYAT

    William H. Martin and Sandra Mason

    The enduring popularity of the verses in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is reflected in the large number of musical works they have inspired. Not all the works  were small-scale pieces. One of the best-known large-scale compositions is Sir Granville Bantock’s (1868-1946) ‘Omar Khayyam’ (1908-10) for soloists, chorus and orchestra. It is a three-part work, setting all the 101 quatrains from FitzGerald’s fifth edition.

  • KHAYYAM, OMAR xi. IMPACT ON LITERATURE AND SOCIETY IN THE WEST

    Jos Biegstraaten

    The first scholar outside Persia to study Omar Khayyam was the English orientalist, Thomas Hyde (1636-1703).

  • KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS

    Pierre Oberling

    The population of Khorasan is extremely varied, consisting principally of Persians, Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Mongols, Baluch, and smaller groups of Jews, Gypsies, and Lors.

  • KHORASANI

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴŪND MOLLĀ MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ.

  • KHORDEH AVESTĀ

    William W. Malandra

    “The Little Avesta,” the name given collections of texts used primarily by the laity for everyday devotions.

  • KHORESH

    Etrat Elahi

    (ḵoreš or ḵorešt), common dish consisting of pieces of meat fried with chopped onion, herbs or vegetables, and other ingredients.

  • KHOTAN

    Multiple Authors

    town (lat 37°06 N, long 79°56 E) and major oasis of the southern Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, historically an important kingdom with an Iranian-speaking population. 

  • KHOTAN ii. HISTORY IN THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    ancient Buddhist oasis/kingdom on the branch of the Silk Road along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim basin, in present-day Xinjiang, China.