Table of Contents


    Jalal Matini

    part of a mythical history of Iran written between 1108 and 1111, dealing with the eventful life of Kuš the Tusked.

  • KUSA

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a carnival character known to the medieval and modern folklore of central and western Persia.


    Multiple Authors

    the line of rulers in Bactria, Central Asia and northern India from the first century CE.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History

    A. D. H. Bivar

    During the first to mid-third centuries CE, the empire of the Kushans (Mid. Pers. Kušān-šahr) represented a major world power in Central Asia and northern India.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ii. Inscriptions of the Kushans

    N. Sims-Williams and H. Falk

    The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers or in areas under their rule include texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script, and in Prakrit written in Brāhmī or Kharoṣṭhī script. Naturally enough, the Bactrian inscriptions are mostly found in Bactria and the Indian inscriptions in the Kushan territories to the south and east of the Hindu Kush.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iii. Chronology of the Kushans

    H. Falk

    Dates in South Asia usually lack precision. Only in post-Kushan times do we meet with dates which are verifiably precise up to the day. The reason is that years can start in spring, the Indian way, or in the autumn, the Macedonian way. Years start with a certain month, but months can start with the full moon or with the new moon.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iv. Coinage of the Kushans

    Robert Bracey

    The coins issued under these kings are presented in chronological order. The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent.

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  • KUSHAN DYNASTY vi. Archeology of the Kushans: in India

    J. Pons

    The history of Kushan archeology south of the Hindu Kush probably begins in 1830 with the exploration of Maṇikiāla by G.-B. Ventura. 

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ix. Art of the Kushans

    Jessie Pons

    Artistic productions fall mainly into: works in the service of the dynasty and works in the service of religion—Buddhism, but also Brahmanism and Jainism. There exist few if any common features between statues of rulers from Khalchayan and a Buddhist relief from Gandhara.

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    Multiple Authors

    the title of rulers, known between the 3rd-century Sasanian conquests and the 4th/5th-century Hunnic invasions, in parts of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Gandhāra.

  • KUSHANSHAHS i. History

    Étienne de La Vaissière

    The very first surely dated occurrence of the title Kushanshah seems to be in the Paikuli inscription of the Sasanian Narseh ca. 293 CE. It would show a reduction in status of the kings of the former Kushan territory from “king of kings” to “king,” itself linked with a Sasanian overlordship.

  • KUSHANSHAHS ii. Kushano-Sasanian Coinage

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The name Kušāno-Sasanian is applied to coin issues in gold, silver, and bronze struck by rulers bearing Sasanian dynastic names who call themselves Kušānšāhs.

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    Mahnaz Moazami

    a Pahlavi treatise of wisdom-literature genre; the story of an orphan of a priestly family who presents himself to the king of kings, Ḵosrow I or Ḵosrow II.


    J. K. Choksy and F. M. Kotwal

    the Pahlavi term used to designate the “holy cord or girdle” worn around the waist by both male and female Zoroastrians after they have been initiated into the faith.

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    Majdoddin Keyvani

    lawyer, politician, author, translator, journalist, psychologist, and founder of the popular psychoanalytical center of Panā[h] in Tehran.


    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the Caspian province of Māzandarān. According to L. S. Fortescue, the tribe “was originally brought from Garrūs and Kurdistān by Nādir Shāh.”


    Tahsin Yazıcı

    (1570-1625), Ottoman šayḵ-al-Eslām, poet, and translator of Saʿdi’s Golestān. He was the second son of Ḵᵛāja Saʿd-al-Din Efendi Eṣfahāni, the famous Ottoman historian, statesman, and šayḵ-al-Eslām.


    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (1290-ca. 1349), Persian poet and mystic. Ḵᵛāju was undoubtedly a versatile poet of great inventiveness and originality.


    Willem Floor

    title by which the supervisor and other workers of the kitchen department of the royal palace were known in the Ghaznavid and Saljuq periods.


    Multiple Authors

    historical district and town in Isfahan province.