Table of Contents

  • ḴUR

    Habib Borjian

    oasis on the southern border of the Great Desert in central Persia; the administrative center of the sub-province of Ḵur and Biābānak.

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  • KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE

    Ludwig Paul

    from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE ii. HISTORY OF KURDISH STUDIES

    Joyce Blau

    The article provides a brief account of Kurdish studies, which is a relatively recent academic field. The earliest studies of the Kurdish language and civilization were carried out by missionaries.

  • KURDISH TRIBES

    Pierre Oberling

    Kurdish tribes are found throughout Persia, eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq, but very few comprehensive lists of them have been published.

  • KURDISH WRITTEN LITERATURE

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Written, “elevated” poetry traditionally played a less prominent role in Kurdish society than folk poetry (q.v.) did. The number of written literary works in Kurdish is far smaller than in the surrounding cultures.

  • KURDOEV, QENĀTĒ

    Joyce Blau

    (1909-1985), Kurdish philologist and university professor.

  • KURGAN TEPE

    Habib Borjian

    (Qūrḡonteppa in Tajik orthography; Kurgan-Tyube in Russian), provincial capital and former province of Tajikistan.

  • KURUNI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan and Fārs. Most of the tribe was transplanted from Kurdistan to Fārs by Karim Khan Zand during the 1760s.

  • KUŠ-NĀMA

    Jalal Matini

    part of a mythical history of Iran written between 1108 and 1111, dealing with the eventful life of Kuš the Tusked.

  • KUSA

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a carnival character known to the medieval and modern folklore of central and western Persia.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY

    Multiple Authors

    the line of rulers in Bactria, Central Asia and northern India from the first century CE.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History

    A. D. H. Bivar

    During the first to mid-third centuries CE, the empire of the Kushans (Mid. Pers. Kušān-šahr) represented a major world power in Central Asia and northern India.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ii. Inscriptions of the Kushans

    N. Sims-Williams and H. Falk

    The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers or in areas under their rule include texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script, and in Prakrit written in Brāhmī or Kharoṣṭhī script. Naturally enough, the Bactrian inscriptions are mostly found in Bactria and the Indian inscriptions in the Kushan territories to the south and east of the Hindu Kush.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iii. Chronology of the Kushans

    H. Falk

    Dates in South Asia usually lack precision. Only in post-Kushan times do we meet with dates which are verifiably precise up to the day. The reason is that years can start in spring, the Indian way, or in the autumn, the Macedonian way. Years start with a certain month, but months can start with the full moon or with the new moon.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iv. Coinage of the Kushans

    Robert Bracey

    The coins issued under these kings are presented in chronological order. The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent.

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  • KUSHAN DYNASTY vi. Archeology of the Kushans: in India

    J. Pons

    The history of Kushan archeology south of the Hindu Kush probably begins in 1830 with the exploration of Maṇikiāla by G.-B. Ventura. 

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ix. Art of the Kushans

    Jessie Pons

    Artistic productions fall mainly into: works in the service of the dynasty and works in the service of religion—Buddhism, but also Brahmanism and Jainism. There exist few if any common features between statues of rulers from Khalchayan and a Buddhist relief from Gandhara.

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  • KUSHANSHAHS

    Multiple Authors

    the title of rulers, known between the 3rd-century Sasanian conquests and the 4th/5th-century Hunnic invasions, in parts of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Gandhāra.

  • KUSHANSHAHS i. History

    Étienne de La Vaissière

    The very first surely dated occurrence of the title Kushanshah seems to be in the Paikuli inscription of the Sasanian Narseh ca. 293 CE. It would show a reduction in status of the kings of the former Kushan territory from “king of kings” to “king,” itself linked with a Sasanian overlordship.

  • KUSHANSHAHS ii. Kushano-Sasanian Coinage

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The name Kušāno-Sasanian is applied to coin issues in gold, silver, and bronze struck by rulers bearing Sasanian dynastic names who call themselves Kušānšāhs.

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