Table of Contents

  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN

    Habib Borjian

    In the past few decades, rural Kashan has rapidly been shifting to Persian. Most villages have already been partly or entirely persianized, and practically all Rāji speakers are bilingual. A distribution of the Rāji-speaking places is known from a survey conducted in the 1970s for individual rural districts of Isfahan Province.

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  • KASHAN ix. THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF KASHAN (2) URBAN JEWISH DIALECT

    Habib Borjian

    Kashan may be characterized as exclusively Persian speaking and Muslim from the time when the city was abandoned by its Jewry, who spoke a variety of Central dialects.

  • KASHGAR

    Pavel Lurje

    (Kāšḡar), town in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, in the westernmost extremity of the Tarim Basin.

  • KASHMIR

    Multiple Authors

    This entry is divided into five articles: i. Introduction. ii. Persian language in Kashmir. iii. Persian language in the state administration. iv. Persian elements in Kashmiri. v. Persian influence on Kashmiri art.

  • KASHMIR i. INTRODUCTION

    Siegfried Weber

    Iranian influence in and beyond the region of Kashmir is a long-term phenomenon. Inscriptions in Sogdian, Parthian, and Middle Persian demonstrate pre-Islamic contacts there with Iranian-speakers.

  • KASHMIR ii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN KASHMIR

    Siegfried Weber

    Persian was the basis of administrations all over western Asia and the highly prestigious language at the courts. Hence, Persian learning radiated into Kashmir and found a fertile soil after the initial impulse.

  • KASHMIR iii. PERSIAN LANGUAGE IN THE STATE ADMINISTRATION

    Siegfried Weber

    Officially Persian became the court language in Kashmir during the 14th and 15th centuries.

  • KASHMIR iv. Persian Elements in Kashmiri

    Omkar N. Koul

    With the establishment of Muslim rule in Northwest India in the 11th century, Perso-Arabic words seeped into native Indian vocabulary. Kashmir is said to have had cultural and trade relations with Persia from ancient times, but the influence of Persian language and culture did not dominate until the introduction of Islam during the 14th century.

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  • KASHMIR v. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON KASHMIRI ART

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    The Iranian influence on the art and architecture of Kashmir is indirect, appearing in ancient times via Hellenistic and Kushan culture and later through Muslim India. 

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  • KASHTARITI

    M. Dandamayev

    (kaš-ta-ri-ti, Old Iranian Khshathrita), a city lord of Karkashshi in the Central Zagros mountains. during the reign of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 BCE).