Table of Contents

  • KÖROĞLU ii. PERFORMANCE ASPECTS

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    The traditional venues for the performance of the Köroǧlu/Goroḡli epic are life-cycle celebrations, private gatherings, and teahouses. In Azerbaijan and northern Khorasan, from the 17th century up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978, teahouses played a pivotal role in the diffusion and the preservation of the epic.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KOROSH

    Multiple Authors

    the name of a tribe scattered across southwestern Iran, whose language is closely related to southern varieties of Balochi.

  • KOROSH i. The Korosh people

    Maryam Nourzaei, Erik Anonby, and Carina Jahani

    Korosh communities are found in villages near large towns and cities, and in the suburbs of these cities, across southwestern Iran. Their traditional livelihood is based on camel and goat husbandry.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KOROSH ii. Linguistic Overview of Koroshi

    Maryam Nourzaei, Carina Jahani, and Erik Anonby

    Koroshi can be described as a distinct subgroup within the Balochi macro-language, although it shares many features with southern dialects of Balochi. The Koroshi spoken in Fars Province (the ‘northern’ dialect) differs to some extent from varieties of the southern dialect.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḴORRAMIS

    Patricia Crone

    adherents of a form of Iranian religion often identified as a survival or revival of the Zoroastrian heresy, Mazdakism.

  • ḴORRAMIS IN BYZANTIUM

    Evangelos Venetis

    Iranians who fought the ʿAbbasid caliph Moʿtaṣem be’llāh (r. 833-41) and enrolled in the Byzantine army of the iconoclast emperor Theophilos I (r. 829-42).

  • ḴORŠĀH B. QOBĀD ḤOSEYNI, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    a Hyderabad-based diplomat and historian of Iranian descent best known for his composition of a universal chronicle in Persian in the name of the Qoṭbšāhi ruler, Ebrāhim (r. 1550-80).

  • ḴORŠĀH, ROKN-AL-DIN

    Farhad Daftary

    (1230-1257), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the last lord of Alamut.

  • ḴOŠ MAḤAL

    Phillip B. Wagoner

    Tughluqid audience hall in the Deccan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KOŠĀNIYA

    P. Lurje

    a medieval Sogdian town to the west of Samarkand. Its name is most probably related to the Yuezhi Kušān dynasty and its claimed heirs, such as the Kidarites.

  • ḴOSROW I

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-79), son of Kawād I.

  • ḴOSROW I i. LIFE AND TIMES

    Multiple Authors

    Sasanian king (r. 531-579). i. Life and Times (forthcoming).

  • ḴOSROW I ii. REFORMS

    Zeev Rubin

    a series of reforms in Sasanian taxation and military organization, probably initiated already under Kawāḏ I.

  • ḴOSROW I iii. COINAGE

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Ḵosrow I (531-79) is generally regarded as the heyday of the Sasanian empire, but his coinage marks the nadir of Sasanian coin art. The most noteworthy features are innovations in reverse typology. In the first type, the assistant figures are shown frontally, a totally new depiction; and they hold what appears to be a spear.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḴOSROW II

    James Howard-Johnston

    the last great king of the Sasanian dynasty (590-628 CE). The principal extant history of the period, written in Armenia in the early 650s, was appropriately entitled The History of Khosrow. He is rightly accorded a great deal of space in the Šāh-nāma of Ferdowsi.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḴOSROW KHAN GORJI QĀJĀR

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1785/86-1857), an influential eunuch (Ḵᵛāja) of the Qajar era, who lived in the period spanning the reigns Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834) to Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96).

  • ḴOSROW MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in northwestern India, essentially in the Panjab, with his capital at Lahore. Various honorifics are attributed to him in the historical sources, in the verses of poets eulogizing him, and in the legends of his coins in the collections of the British Museum and Lahore

  • ḴOSROW MIRZĀ QĀJĀR

    George Bournoutian

    (1813-1875), the seventh son of Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mirzā, who led an official Iranian delegation to the Tsarist court in St. Petersburg.

  • ḴOSROW O ŠIRIN

    Paola Orsatti

    the second poem of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa, recounting the amorous relationship between the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parviz (r. 590-628 CE), and the beautiful princess Širin.

  • ḴOSROWŠĀH B. BAHRĀMŠĀH

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    penultimate ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, apparently still in Ghazna until the dynasty found its last home at Lahore in northwestern India at a date around or soon after the time of his death.

  • ḴOṬBA

    Tahera Qutbuddin

    (oration, speech, sermon), a formal public address performed in a broad range of contexts by Muslims across the globe, rooted in the extemporaneously composed discourses of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Arabia.

  • ḴOTTAL

    Clifford Edmund Bosworth

    a province of medieval Islamic times on the right bank of the upper Oxus river in modern Tajikistan. A region of lush pastures, Ḵottal was famed for horse-breeding.

  • KRÁMSKÝ, JIRÍ

    Jiri Bečka

    (1913-1991), Czech general linguist who specialized in Persian language studies. He then studied English and Persian (the latter under Professor J. Rypka) at the Charles University, Prague. 

  • Křikavová, Adéla

    Jiri Bečka

    (1938-2002), Czech scholar of Iranian and particularly Kurdish studies.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KRYMSKIĬ, Agfangel Efimovich

    Natalia Chalisova

    (1871-1942) Ukrainian orientalist, author of over 1,000 works on the history and culture of Iran, Arab countries, Turkey, the Khanate of the Crimea, and Azerbaijan.

  • KUFA

    Meir Litvak

    a city south of Baghdad.

  • KUFTA

    Etrat Elahi

    popular Persian dish usually made of ground lamb or beef, and more recently, ground chicken or turkey in a mixture of herbs, spices, or other ingredients. There are two kinds of kufta: with rice and without.

  • KUH-E ḴᵛĀJA

    Soroor Ghanimati

    a well preserved archeological site of chiefly Sasanian date, in the delta of the Helmand River, in the Iranian province of Sistān, near Zābol. The sacred precinct is located on the monumental upper part of the site and has inevitably attracted most attention.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KUHPĀYA

    Multiple Authors

    piedmont district east of Isfahan province, historically known as Vir.

  • KUHPĀYA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Kuhpāya is a large piedmont boluk (3,000 km2) separated from Ardestān on the north and Nāʾin on the east respectively by the Fešārk and Kuhestān chains, extensions of the Karkas range.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KUHPĀYA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The dialects spoken in the Kuhpāya district belong to the Central Dialects, but in a narrower sense they are grouped together with the welāyati “provincial” idioms around the city of Isfahan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KUKADARU, JAMSHEDJI SORAB

    Michael Stausberg and Ramiyar P. Karanjia

    (1831-1900), Parsi Zoroastrian priest. He was renowned for his spiritual powers, in particular with respect to healing and divination.

  • KULĀB

    Habib Borjian

    or Kōlāb, city and former province (the greater part of medieval Ḵottal[ān]) of Tajikistan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KULĀBI DIALECT

    Habib Borjian

    a distinct variant of Tajik spoken in Kulāb and adjoining districts.

  • KUNDA(G)

    Mahnaz Moazami

    a demon in Zoroastrian literature;  in the Avesta, Sraoša or Ātar is implored to cast it into hell; in Middle Persian books, it is the steed of the sorcerers.  

  • ḴUR

    Habib Borjian

    oasis on the southern border of the Great Desert in central Persia; the administrative center of the sub-province of Ḵur and Biābānak.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE

    Ludwig Paul

    from Old and Middle Iranian times, no predecessors of the Kurdish language are yet known; the extant Kurdish texts may be traced back to no earlier than the 16th century CE.

  • KURDISH LANGUAGE ii. HISTORY OF KURDISH STUDIES

    Joyce Blau

    The article provides a brief account of Kurdish studies, which is a relatively recent academic field. The earliest studies of the Kurdish language and civilization were carried out by missionaries.

  • KURDISH TRIBES

    Pierre Oberling

    Kurdish tribes are found throughout Persia, eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq, but very few comprehensive lists of them have been published.

  • KURDISH WRITTEN LITERATURE

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Written, “elevated” poetry traditionally played a less prominent role in Kurdish society than folk poetry (q.v.) did. The number of written literary works in Kurdish is far smaller than in the surrounding cultures.

  • KURDOEV, QENĀTĒ

    Joyce Blau

    (1909-1985), Kurdish philologist and university professor.

  • KURGAN TEPE

    Habib Borjian

    (Qūrḡonteppa in Tajik orthography; Kurgan-Tyube in Russian), provincial capital and former province of Tajikistan.

  • KURUNI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan and Fārs. Most of the tribe was transplanted from Kurdistan to Fārs by Karim Khan Zand during the 1760s.

  • KUŠ-NĀMA

    Jalal Matini

    part of a mythical history of Iran written between 1108 and 1111, dealing with the eventful life of Kuš the Tusked.

  • KUSA

    Anna Krasnowolska

    a carnival character known to the medieval and modern folklore of central and western Persia.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY

    Multiple Authors

    the line of rulers in Bactria, Central Asia and northern India from the first century CE.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY i. Dynastic History

    A. D. H. Bivar

    During the first to mid-third centuries CE, the empire of the Kushans (Mid. Pers. Kušān-šahr) represented a major world power in Central Asia and northern India.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY ii. Inscriptions of the Kushans

    N. Sims-Williams and H. Falk

    The inscriptions issued by the Kushan rulers or in areas under their rule include texts in Bactrian, written in Greek script, and in Prakrit written in Brāhmī or Kharoṣṭhī script. Naturally enough, the Bactrian inscriptions are mostly found in Bactria and the Indian inscriptions in the Kushan territories to the south and east of the Hindu Kush.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iii. Chronology of the Kushans

    H. Falk

    Dates in South Asia usually lack precision. Only in post-Kushan times do we meet with dates which are verifiably precise up to the day. The reason is that years can start in spring, the Indian way, or in the autumn, the Macedonian way. Years start with a certain month, but months can start with the full moon or with the new moon.

  • KUSHAN DYNASTY iv. Coinage of the Kushans

    Robert Bracey

    The coins issued under these kings are presented in chronological order. The gradual visual evolution of the designs should make the numismatic connection apparent.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.