Table of Contents

  • JUB-E GOWHAR

    Bruno Overlaet

    an archeological site in the Eyvān plain, Ilām province (Poštkuh, Lorestān). A total of sixty-six tombs of a partially plundered graveyard were excavated in 1977 by the Belgian Archeological Mission in Iran, directed by Louis Vanden Berghe.

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  • JUBAN

    Ali Hakemi

    village and excavation site in Gilan Province. It is located 54 km south of Rasht, 4 km south of Kalvarz, and 12 km from Rudbār. In 1966, after three months of excavations (mid-spring to mid-summer), the archeological association of Rudbār discovered here the remains of a civilization dating from the beginning to the middle of the first millennium BCE.

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  • JUBĀRA

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN xviii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

  • JUDAKI

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Lor tribe of the Ḵorramābād region in western Persia.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES

    Multiple Authors

     OF IRAN, one of the oldest Jewish populations in the Diaspora. 

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES i. INTRODUCTION

    Houman Sarshar

    Jewish communities have been living upon the Persian plateau since ca. 721 BCE, when King Sargon II (r. 721-705 BCE) relocated large communities of conquered Israelites.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ii. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mayer I. Gruber

    The most significant chapter in the story of Jews and Judaism in Persia began 15 March 597 BCE, when King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia conquered Jerusalem and carried away as captives 10,000 Jews from Jerusalem and Judah, including King Jehoiachin of Judah.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    Jacob Neusner

    By the time the Parthians reached Babylonia, Jews had lived there, under Babylonian, Achaemenid, and Seleucid rule for more than four and a half centuries.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iv. MEDIEVAL TO LATE 18TH CENTURY

    Vera Basch Moreen

    From ancient times Iranian Jews formed communities in most of the major towns, villages, and regions of the Persianate world. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, Iraq and Iran, then among the richest areas in the world, contained very large and prosperous Jewish populations.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (1)

    Daniel Tsadik

    The socio-economic and legal status of the Jews of Iran in early Qajar times was, to an extent, a continuation of the legacy of Safavid times. With the passage of time, however, and largely due to the increasing intervention of the great powers and foreign Jews, certain changes started to be seen.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (2)

    Mehrdad Amanat

    In the latter part of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries there occurred a relatively widespread mass movement of Persian Jews to the Bahai community.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vi. THE PAHLAVI ERA (1925-1979)

    Orly R. Rahimiyan

    During this period, the government obstructed Jewish emigration to then Palestine. Zionist institutions in London and the Iranian Foreign Ministry engaged in heated arguments over the total ban on emigration to Palestine and on the use of Iranian soil by Russian Jews as a transit station on their way to Palestine.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vii. THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Cross-Reference

    See forthcoming online.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES viii. JUDEO-PERSIAN LANGUAGE

    Thamar E. Gindin

    a group of very similar, usually mutually comprehensible, dialects of Persian, spoken or written by Jews in greater Iran over a period of more than a millennium.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ix. JUDEO-PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Amnon Netzer

    Most of the inscriptions and documents written in Judeo-Persian at the beginning of the Islamic period were discovered in the 19th century. They are important for the study of the development of early New Persian, and their existence proves that Jews lived and were active in all areas within and beyond the borders of historical Persia.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES x. JUDEO-PERSIAN JARGON (LOTERĀʾI)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Loterāʾi is the secret jargon used by the Jewish communities of Iran and Afghanistan when they do not want the content of their talk to be understood by non-Jews.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (1)

    Houman Sarshar

    This section is divided into four sub-sections: introduction, religious music, para-liturgical music, and secular Persian Jewish music.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (2)

    Houman Sarshar

    This section is divided into: moṭrebs (hired popular musicians), Persian classical music, instrument makers, and popular music. Existing scholarship and historical documents suggest that Jews were the most prevalent minority engaged as moṭrebs.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xii. PERSIAN CONTRIBUTION TO JUDAISM

    Jacob Neusner

    While the Jews of the Parthian and Sasanian empires spoke (eastern) Aramaic, not Middle Persian, Persian influence on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) is by no means negligible.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Multiple Authors

    i. Achaemenid systems.  ii. Parthian and Sasanian judicial system. iii. Sasanian legal system. iv. Judicial system, advent of Islam through the 19th century. v. Judicial system, 20th century. vi. Legal system, Islamic period.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS i. ACHAEMENID JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    F. Rachel Magdalene

    This article will address principally the sources of our knowledge of the judicial and legal system in the Achaemenid period, as well as the nature of the court system, which persons had standing to sue, and legal procedure.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS ii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

    Mansour Shaki

    In Sasanian times, and by extrapolation in previous periods, there were courts of justice at various levels all over the empire, in every rural area, district, and city.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iii. SASANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Maria Macuch

    A great number of treatises on jurisprudence must have existed in the Sasanian age, called dādestān-nāmag “Lawbooks,” but only one text from this period has survived.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iv. JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE ADVENT OF ISLAM THROUGH THE 19TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    From the beginning of Islamic rule in Persia, a secular and a religious judiciary co-existed: the ʿorfi court applying the common law, the tribunal of religious judge (qāẓi) applying the sacred law (šariʿa).

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    Twentieth-century Iran experienced dramatic changes to its judicial system during the following periods: (1) Constitutional Period, (2) Pahlavi Period, (3) Post-revolution Period. Judges still applied pre-revolution laws and regulations until 11 August 1982, when Ayatollah Khomeini ordered judges to use their knowledge of Islamic law in cases where no new Islamic laws had yet been formulated.

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  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS vi. LEGAL SYSTEM, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See forthcoming, online. See also AḴBĀRIYA; CIVIL CODE; CONSTITUTION; CONTRACT; FEQHHADITH.

  • JUKES, ANDREW

    Shireen Mahdavi

    British East India Company surgeon and political agent (1774-1821).

  • JULFA

    Multiple Authors

    short for New Julfa, a large settlement on the southwestern edge of Isfahan, established by Armenian refugees in 1605. The modern town is still mostly populated by Armenians.

  • JULFA i. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The original Julfa (Arm. ǰuła) is a very old village in the province of Nakhijevan (Naḵjavān), in historical Armenia.  In early summer of 1605, the Julfa deportees to Iran were given temporary shelter in Isfahan, and they began with the building of New Julfa on the right bank of the Zāyandarud. For the first decades after its foundation, New Julfa was exclusively populated by Armenians from Old Julfa.

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  • JULFA ii. THE 18TH AND THE 19TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Afghan occupation of Isfahan between 1722 and 1729 struck a most devastating blow to the Armenians of New Julfa, although the city was spared total destruction and massive killings of its population. Nāder Shah Afšār (d. 1747) was even more brutal. Karim Khan Zand (d. 1779) treated the Armenian community fairly well and tried to encourage the return of expatriate Julfan merchants.

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  • JULFA iii. THE 20TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 had a profound impact on Persian society as a whole. Armenians were actively involved in the constitutional movement.

  • JULFA iv. ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING

    Armen Haghnazarian

    By 1640 New Julfa had grown into an important cultural center with many public buildings, including churches, markets, and bath houses.

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  • JULFA v. ARMENIANS IN INDIA

    Sebouh Aslanian

    In the 17th century, Julfan merchants expanded their trade network in South Asia, and at the beginning of the 18th century the Primate of New Julfa had jurisdiction over the Armenian congregations in India and Java.

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  • JULIAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), Roman emperor (r. 361-63). The present article deals only with Julian’s military campaign against the Sasanians up to his death.

  • JUNGE, PETER JULIUS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    German ancient historian and Iranologist (1913-1943).

  • JUNKER, HEINRICH FRANZ JOSEF

    Werner Sundermann

    Junker chose as the subject of his thesis one of the most difficult and linguistically important Pahlavi texts, the Middle Persian dictionary of heterograms (a most appropriate term applied by Junker to Middle Iranian Aramaic spellings) and their eteographic explanations, commonly known as Frahang ī pahlawīg.

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  • JUSTI, FERDINAND (WILHELM JAKOB)

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Oriental, particularly Iranian, studies, comparative philologist, and folklorist (1837-1907).

  • JUSTINIAN I

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus), Eastern Roman emperor, 527-65; his rule was marked by several military conflicts with the Sasanian empire under Kawād I and Chosroes (Ḵosrow) I.

  • JUYBĀRIS

    R. D. McChesney

    prominent Bukharan family dynasty, whose leading social position lasted more than 500 years. One of the foundations of the family’s status was spiritual.

  • J~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter J entries.