Table of Contents

  • JĀMEʿ al-TAWĀRIḴ ii. Illustrations

    Sheila S. Blair

    Just as the text of Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh’s Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ can be regarded as groundbreaking historically, so too the illustrations to it are seminal for the study of art history.

  • JĀMEʿ-E ʿABBĀSI

    Sajjad Rizvi

    a Persian manual on foruʿ al-feqh (positive rules derived from the sources of legal knowledge) in Shiʿism.

  • JĀMEʿA

    cross-reference

    See ZIĀRAT-E JĀMEʿA.

  • JĀMEʿA-YE LISĀNSIAHĀ-YE DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLI

    Ahmad Birashk

     the Association of graduates of the Teacher Training College, founded in 1932 by its first two graduating classes.

  • JĀMI

    Multiple Authors

    , ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN NUR-AL-DIN b. Neẓām-al-Din Aḥmad-e Dašti, Persian poet, scholar, and Sufi (1414-1492). Over almost fifty years, he turned his hand to every genre of Persian poetry and penned numerous treatises on a wide range of topics in the humanities and religious sciences.

  • JĀMI i. Life and Works

    Paul Losensky

    though born in the hamlet of Ḵarjerd, Jāmi would take his penname from the nearby village of Jām (lying about midway between Mashad and Herat), where he spent his childhood.

  • JĀMI ii. And Sufism

    Hamid Algar

    among the several facets of Jāmi’s persona and career—Sufi, scholar, poet, associate of rulers—it may be permissible to award primacy to the first mentioned.

  • JĀMI iii. And Persian Art

    Chad Kia

    Jāmi’s writings are among the most frequently illustrated in the history of Persian manuscript painting.

  • JĀMI RUMI

    OSMAN G. ÖZGÜDENLI

    (or Jāmi Meṣri), AḤMAD, Ottoman official, poet, and translator (fl. 10th/16th century).

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI

    Ali Rahnema

    (Society of Islamic Coalition), a religious-political organization founded in 1963 to propagate Ayatollah Khomeini’s vision of an Islamic-Iranian state and society and to mobilize the population to implement that vision. 

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI i. Hayʾathā-ye Moʾtalefa-ye Eslāmi 1963-79

    Ali Rahnema

    The Islamic Coalition of Mourning Groups was born almost two years after the death of Ayatollah Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi Borujerdi in 1961.

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI ii. Jamʿiyat-e Moʾtalefa and the Islamic Revolution

    Ali Rahnema

    After the 1979 Revolution, the “Coalition of Islamic Mourning Groups” changed its expressive and meaningful name to the rather awkward appellation of Jamʿiyat-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi (the Society of Islamic Coalition).

  • JAMḴĀNA

    cross-reference

    See AḤL-E ḤAQQ.

  • JAMKARĀN

    Jean Calmard

    village near Qom, located 6 km south of it on the Qom-Kashan highway. It includes the mazraʿas of Gorgābi (Hādi-Mehdi) and Zangābād, the ruins of Gabri castle, and the Jamkarān or Ṣāḥeb-al-Zamān mosque.

  • JAMSHIDI TRIBE

    Christine Noelle-Karimi

    (Jamšidi) one of several semi-nomadic, Persian-speaking, Hanafite Sunni groups of northwestern Afghanistan known as aymāq.

  • JAMŠID

    Multiple Authors

    (or Jam), mythical king of Iran; Avestan Yima (Old Indic Yama), with the epithet xšaēta.

  • JAMŠID B. MASʿUD ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN KĀŠI

    cross-reference

    See KĀŠI.

  • JAMŠID i. Myth of Jamšid

    PRODS OKTOR SKJÆRVØ

    In the Avesta, he ruled the world in a golden age; he saved living beings from a natural catastrophe by preserving specimens in his var- (fortress); he possessed the most Fortune among mortals, but lost it and his kingship as a consequence of lying.

  • JAMŠID ii. In Persian Literature

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Sources all agree that he reigned for several hundred years, but they differ on the exact length of his rule.

  • JĀN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    , AMIR ʿALĀʾI (1886-1951), brigadier general and commander of Khorasan army during the early Reżā Shah period, noted for his ruthlessness but eventually undone due to a mutiny of unpaid  troops.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JANĀB

    cross-reference

    See ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWIN.

  • JANĀB DAMĀVANDI

    S. A. Mir ʿAlinaqi

    (1867-1973), popular name of Moḥammad Fallāḥi, a vocalist of the late Qajar period.

  • JAND

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a medieval Islamic town on the right bank of the lower Jaxartes in Central Asia some 350 km from where the river enters the Aral Sea.

  • JANDAQ

    M. Badanj

    a town and rural district (dehestān) in the Ḵor and Biābānak district (baḵš) of Nāʾin sub-province in the province of Isfahan.

  • JANGALI MOVEMENT

    Pezhmann Dailami

    (1915-20), under the leadership of Mirzā Kuček Khan Jangali, in response to the political decay during World War I and the occupation of Iran by Anglo-Russian and Ottoman troops.

  • JĀNI BEG KHAN BIGDELI ŠĀMLU

    Rudi Matthee

    (d. 1645), išik-āqāsi-bāši (master of ceremony) and qurči-bāši (head of the tribal guards) under the Safavid Shah Ṣafi I (r. 1629-42) and Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

  • JANNĀBA

    Cross-Reference

    term used by early Muslim geographers to refer to the county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr. See GANĀVA.

  • JANNĀBI, ABU SAʿID

    Cross-Reference

    11th-century vizier and man of letters. See, ĀBI, ABU SAʿID.

  • JAPAN

    Multiple Authors

    AND ITS RELATIONS WITH IRAN. The subject of contact between the two countries will be discussed in the following sub-entries.

  • JAPAN i. Introduction

    C. J. Brunner

    Direct contact and observation of each other by Persians and Japanese would wait for the establishment of Japan’s relations with the world by the modernizing administration of the Meiji period (1868-1912).

  • JAPAN ii. Diplomatic and Commercial Relations with Iran

    Nobuaki Kondo

    Although it is not clear when Iran initiated diplomatic contact with Japan, it is believed to have been in 1873, when Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, on his first trip to Europe, met Naonobu Sameshima of Satsuma, who was the then Japanese ambassador to Paris, France. The shah did not include many details about the meeting in his memoir.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • Japan iii. Japanese Travelers to Persia

    Tadahiko Ohtsu and Hashem Rajabzadeh

    It was only in 1854 that relations with foreign countries were resumed. This process gathered pace with the advent of the Meiji period (1868-1912), when the Japanese were allowed to go on official visits abroad.

  • JAPAN iv. Iranians in Japan

    Toyoko Morita

    Among the foreigners in Japan, Iranians total about 5,000 people, constituting a small minority group.

  • JAPAN v. ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO PERSIA

    Toh Sugimura

    After World War II Japanese archeologists could not continue their work on sites in Korea and China, and their expertise became available for research in the Middle East and Persia.

  • JAPAN vi. IRANIAN STUDIES IN JAPAN, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Takeshi Aoki

    Ancient Iranian studies in Japan started at the beginning of the 20th century in Tokyo and Kyoto independently.

  • JAPAN vii. IRANIAN STUDIES, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

     Forthcoming, Online.

  • JAPAN viii. SAFAVID STUDIES IN JAPAN

    Masashi Haneda

    The genesis of Safavid studies in Japan was an outgrowth of the interest in the history of the Mongols and the Turkic people, which is a significant point characterizing Safavid studies there.

  • JAPAN ix. Centers for Persian Studies in Japan

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Formal undergraduate and graduate programs of Persian studies in Japan are offered at Osaka University School of Foreign Studies and Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

  • JAPAN x. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN BOOKS IN JAPAN

    Cross-Reference

    Forthcoming, online.

  • JAPAN xi. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN ART IN JAPAN

    Toh Sugimura

    Persian works of art in Japanese collections may be classified into (1) artifacts brought through China and Korea up to early modern times, (2) purchases in art markets since the 19th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JAPAN xii. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO JAPANESE

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Japanese readers were introduced to the Persian classics with translations of ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyāt and Ferdowisi’s Šāh-nāma.

  • JAPAN xiii. TRANSLATIONS OF JAPANESE WORKS INTO PERSIAN

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Introduction of Japan to Persian readers began when Japanese military victories over China (1894-95) and, especially, Russia (1904-05) excited the interest of Iranians.

  • JĀRČI

    Charles Melville

    a public crier, announcer or herald, derived from the Mongol jar (proclamation, announcement). Criers or heralds naturally have a role in both civilian and military capacities.

  • JĀRČI-E MELLAT

    EIr.

    a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions).

  • JARI, TALL-E

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    a Fars Province site named for its two closely situated prehistoric mounds, Jari A and B. The two mounds are located approximately 12 km southeast of Persepolis.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JARQUYA

    Habib Borjian

    district located in the eastern region of Isfahan Province. i. The district. ii. The dialect.

  • JARQUYA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Separated from Isfahan by the Šāhkuh range, Jarquya spreads over 6,500 km², stretching in a northwest-southeast direction to the wasteland that separates it from Abarquh.

  • JARQUYA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The dialect of Jarquya, together with those of Rudašt and Kuhpāya to its north, belongs to the Isfahani subgroup of the Central Dialects. Only about half of the villages of the district have retained their idioms, namely Ganjābād, Siān, Yangābād, Peykān, Mazraʿa-ʿArab, and Ḥaydarābād in Lower Jarquya, and Dastgerd, Kamālābād, Ḥasanābād, Ḵārā, and Yaḵčāl in Upper Jarquya.

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  • JARRĀḤI RIVER

    cross-reference

    See KHUZESTAN i. Geography.

  • JĀRUDIYA

    cross-reference

    See ZAIDIS.