Table of Contents

  • JAIPUR

    Catherine B. Asher

    city in northwestern India, founded in 1727 by the Kachhwaha prince (raja) and Mughal officer Sawai Jai Singh Kachhwaha (1688-1743). He had a passionate interest in astronomy and, inspired by Ulugh Beg’s (1394-1449) astronomical observations and tables (zij), he wrote the Zij-e Moḥammad-Šāhi and built an observatory in Jaipur with enormous instruments for observing and calculating celestial phenomena

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  • JĀJARMI

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    , MOḤAMMAD B. BADR, 14th-century Persian poet and anthologist.

  • JĀJRUD

    Bernard Hourcade

    a major river of the southern slopes of the central Alborz in the Central Plateau (140 km. long, basin of 1,890 km²),  running from the mountains of Šami-rānāt at Rudbār-e Qaṣrān to the plain of Varāmin and eventually joins the salt lake of Qom (Daryāča-ye Qom), at about 89 km to the northwest of the city.

  • JĀKI

    P. Oberling

    a group of Lor tribes in the Kuhgiluya region of eastern Khuzesan. They comprise the tribal confederations of the Čahārboniča (or Čarboniča) and the Lirāvi.

  • JAKKADI

    Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

    a dance style performed by Persian women, as documented in Sanskrit treatises of the 16th and 17th centuries.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ABU’L-QĀSEM TABRIZI

    Farhan Nizami

    (d. 1244-45), a prominent Sufi of the Sohravardiya Order. Started his education in Tabriz under Badr-al-Din Abu Saʿid Tabrizi.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN DAVĀNI

    cross-reference

    See DAVĀNI.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḤASAN III

    FARHAD DAFTARY

    (b. 1166-67; d. 1221), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the sixth lord of Alamut. He succeeded to the leadership of the Nezāridaʿwa (‘propaganda’ or ‘mission,’ see DĀʿI) and state on the death of his father, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad II b. Ḥasan II.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḴvĀRAZMŠĀH(I) MENGÜBIRNI

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the line of Anuštigin Ḡarčaʾi, reigned in 1220-31 as the eldest son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MIRZĀ

    Abbas Amanat and Farzin Vejdani

    Qajar historian and freethinker (1827-1872). Born at the court in Tehran, he was the fifty-fifth son of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834). Besides European influences, the intellectual sources of his freethinking are not entirely known. He associated with Mirzā Malkom Khan (1833-1908) and his secret society, the Farāmuš-ḵāna (‘house of oblivion’), which made strident efforts to recruit members.

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  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD BALḴI, MAWLAWI

    cross-reference

    See RUMI. Forthcoming, online.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN TURĀNŠĀH

    cross-reference

    See MOZAFFARIDS.

  • JALĀL-AL-MOLK

    cross-reference

    See IRAJ MIRZĀ.

  • JALĀLĀBĀD

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    a city, a valley, and an administrative unit of fluctuating scope within the Afghan state structure. The city is located in eastern Afghanistan at 1,885 feet above sea level in the north-central portion of an elongated oval valley that stretches approximately 80 miles east to west.

  • JALĀLI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of eastern Anatolia and northwestern Persia.

  • JALĀLZĀDA

    Tahsın Yazici

    , MOṢṬAFĀ ÇELEBI, also known as “Koja Nişancı” (Ḵᵛāja Nešānči), Ottoman historian and administrator (b. ca. 1490-94; d. 1567).

  • JALĀYER

    cross-reference

    See KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS.

  • JALĀYER, ESMĀʿIL KHAN

    Manouchehr Broomand

    a prominent painter of the Qajar era, during the reign of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96). He was  noted for his work in the genres of irāni-sāzi (Iranian subjects, relatively unaffected by European influences) and ṭabiʿat-sāzi (fauna and flora in a European naturalistic mode).

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  • JALĀYER-NĀMA

    cross-reference

    See QĀʾEM-MAQĀM.

  • JALAYERIDS

    Peter Jackson

    (sometimes called the Ilakāni by Persian historians), a dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled over Iraq, and for several decades also over north-western Persia, from the collapse of the Il-khanate in the late 1330s until the early 15th century.

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  • JALIL, RAHIM

    K. Hitchins

    Soviet Tajik writer (1909-1989), a master of the short story.

  • JALILAVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Laki-speaking tribe inhabiting the Kermānšāh and Lorestān regions, most of whom belong to the Ahl-e Haqq sect.

  • JĀLINUS

    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    (Galen), the Arabic form of Greek Galenos, the name of the illustrious 2nd-century authority on medicine of ancient Greece.

  • JALULĀʾ

    Klaus Klier

    the site of a major battle between the Sasanian and Muslim forces. This locale is a medium-sized town in the Diāla Province of Iraq, situated on the middle course of the Diāla River.

  • JAM

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    name given to a religious ceremony performed among two important religious communities living traditionally in the same historical region on the Zagros Mountain chain.

  • JĀM (1)

    Majd-al-din Keyvani

    a mountainous region on the way from Kabul to Herat, and a historically important village in the province of Ghur (Ḡur) in western Afghanistan.

  • JĀM (2)

    Pending

    “cup”: in Persian art and literature. Pending online.

  • JĀM MINARET

    F. B. Flood

    pre-eminent 12th-century monument of the Šansabāni sultans of Ḡur in central Afghanistan. The minaret stands 65 meters high near the confluence of the Harirud and Jāmrud rivers in a remote mountain valley once protected by a series of defensive towers.

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  • JAM, MAḤMUD

    Ali Sadeghi

    , titled Modir-al-Molk (1885-1969), prime minister under Reżā Shah.

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN ʿASADĀBĀDI

    cross-reference

    See AFGANI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD EṢFAHĀNI

    D. DURAND-GUÉDY

    poet and painter of the second half of the 12th century.

  • JAMĀLI ṢUFI

    Maryam Ekhtiari

    , PIR YAḤYĀ, calligrapher of the mid-8th/14th century who worked in Shiraz in the 740s/1340s.

  • JAMĀLI, ḤĀMED B. FAŻL-ALLĀH

    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    Persian-speaking Indian poet (b. Delhi, ca. 862/1457; d. Gujarat, 942/1535).

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI

    Multiple Authors

    prominent Iranian intellectual, a pioneer of modern Persian prose fiction and of the genre of the short story (1892-1997).

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  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI i. Life

    Nahid Mozaffari

    Mohammad-Ali, the eldest of five children, was born in 1892 in Isfahan.

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI ii. Work

    Hassan Kamshad and Nahid Mozaffari

    Jamalzadeh, an innovator of the modern literary language, was the first to introduce the techniques of European short-story writing in Persian literature.

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI iii. Bibliography

    Nahid Mozaffari

    a bibliography of Jamalzadeh’s work.

  • JĀMĀSP

    Jamsheed K. Choksy, Nikolaus Schindel

    Sasanian king. He ascended to the throne in 496 (or possibly early 497) when his brother, the king of kings Kawād I, was deposed.  Jāmāsp, like Kawād, was a son of the Sasanian ruler Pērōz (r. 459-84).  

  • Jāmāsp i. REIGN

    JAMSHEED K. CHOKSY

    Jāmāsp or Zāmāsp (Middle Persian yʾmʾsp, zʾmʾsp; Greek Zamásphēs; Arabic Jāmāsb, Zāmāsb, Zāmāsf; New Persian Jāmāsp, Zāmāsp) ascended to the Sasanian throne in 496.

  • Jāmāsp ii. Coinage

    NIKOLAUS SCHINDEL

    No gold coins are attested so far for Jāmāsp. Apart from the silver drachms, sixths of a drachm, or obols, are known from the mints DA and LD. All the DA specimens are dated to regnal year one, and perhaps are connected with the king’s coronation, which thus may have taken place in Dārābḡerd.

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  • JĀMĀSP-NĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

  • JĀMĀSPA

    W. W. Malandra

    an official at the court of Vīštāspa and an early convert of Zarathushtra, who, in the tradition became widely known for his wisdom.

  • JĀMĀSPASA, Dastur JAMASPJI MINOCHERJI

    Ramiyar P. Karanjia and Michael Stausberg

    (1830-1898), Parsi priest and Iranologist, offspring of a priestly family from Navsari in Gujarat, India. As a high priest he guided and supervised the consecration of several fire temples, not only in Bombay but all over India. He possessed a vast collection of important Zoroastrian manuscripts, and his publication Pahlavi texts (1897-1913) made these  available to a larger audience.

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  • JĀMĀSPI

    Cross-Reference

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKĀYĀT

    Dariush Kargar

    (lit. Compiler of stories), one of the oldest and most common titles of mostly anonymous Persian story collections, dating from the 13th to the 19th century.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKMATAYN

    cross-reference

    See NĀṢER-E ḴOSROW.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ʿOLUM

    cross-reference

    See ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAMṮIL

    Ulrich Marzolph

    a collection of Persian proverbs and their stories compiled in 1045/1644 by Moḥammad-ʿAli Ḥablarudi.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAVĀRIḴ-E ḤASANI

    İlker Evrim Binbaş

    a Timurid universal chronicle up to December 1451-January 1452, with a valuable final section on events in Kerman up to 1453. 

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAWĀRIḴ

    Charles Melville

    (The Compendium of chronicles), historical work composed in 1300-10 by Ḵᵛāja Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh Ṭabib Hamadāni, vizier to the Mongol Il-khans Ḡāzān and Öljeitü.