Table of Contents


    William W. Malandra

    (1862-1937), pioneer of Iranian studies in America and prominent Iranist for half a century. The most important book of Jackson perhaps was Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran (1898). He was not among those who belittled indigenous traditions. He had an abiding faith in the basic historicity of these sources.

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    Eden Naby

    (1890-1971), Assyrian intellectual and publisher. In New York, he created fonts for Syriac typography, designed books for major literary publishers, and at his own press produced artistic and surprising limited-editions, most often of poetry. He is best remembered for his typography of E. E. Cummings’ books of verse.

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  • JADE

    Manuel Keene

    (nephrite; Pers. yašm, yašb, yašf, yaṣb). An extremely small range of pre-Islamic Iranian jades have thus far been published, despite the very ancient employment of jade in eastern Iran. The known material is often of extraordinary refinement, and testifies to an extensive influence on other jadecarving cultures, including the Chinese.

  • JADE i. Introduction

    Manuel Keene

    carvings in pre-Islamic Central and Western Asia was largely an east Iranian and Turkic phenomenon, and the same holds true for the Islamic tradition.

  • JADE ii. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades

    Manuel Keene

    Extant scabbard slides of softer and more brittle stones (e.g., lapis lazuli, rock crystal), as well as wood, suggest that the toughness of jade was not an essential requirement for this function. Other types of jade fittings on the warrior and his horse would often accompany the weapon’s mounts.

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  • JADE iii. Jade Carving, 4th century B.C.E to 15th century C.E.

    Manuel Keene

    The eleven ancient and medieval jades illustrated in the plates are representatives of a very large and expanding corpus of ancient and medieval Iranian jades. 

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    K. Hitchins

    a movement of reform among Muslim intellectuals in Central Asia, mainly among the Uzbeks and the Tajiks, from the first years of the 20th century to the 1920s.

  • JAF (JĀF)

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    a once large Kurdish nomadic confederation living in south Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sanandaj area of Iranian Kurdistan.


    Multiple Authors

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH (ca. 702-765), the sixth imam of the Imami Shiʿites. He spent most of his life in Medina, where he built up a circle of followers primarily as a theologian, Ḥadith transmitter, and jurist (faqih).

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life

    Robert Gleave

    life spanned the latter half of the Umayyad dynasty ruling from Damascus, which was marked by various rebellions, the rise of the ʿAbbasids, and the establishment of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad.