Table of Contents

  • JADE

    Manuel Keene

    (nephrite; Pers. yašm, yašb, yašf, yaṣb). An extremely small range of pre-Islamic Iranian jades have thus far been published, despite the very ancient employment of jade in eastern Iran. The known material is often of extraordinary refinement, and testifies to an extensive influence on other jadecarving cultures, including the Chinese.

  • JADE i. Introduction

    Manuel Keene

    carvings in pre-Islamic Central and Western Asia was largely an east Iranian and Turkic phenomenon, and the same holds true for the Islamic tradition.

  • JADE ii. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades

    Manuel Keene

    Extant scabbard slides of softer and more brittle stones (e.g., lapis lazuli, rock crystal), as well as wood, suggest that the toughness of jade was not an essential requirement for this function. A number of other types of jade fittings on the warrior and his horse would often accompany the weapon’s mounts.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JADE iii. Jade Carving, 4th century B.C.E to 15th century C.E.

    Manuel Keene

    The eleven ancient and medieval jades illustrated in the plates are representatives of a very large and expanding corpus of ancient and medieval Iranian jades. They are primarily discussed as works of art, but the ways in which they document the technological sophistication of the hardstone industries in Iran, and Iran’s cultural interrelationships, are also examined.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • JADIDISM

    K. Hitchens

    a movement of reform among Muslim intellectuals in Central Asia, mainly among the Uzbeks and the Tajiks, from the first years of the 20th century to the 1920s.

  • JAF (JĀF)

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    a once large Kurdish nomadic confederation living in south Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sanandaj area of Iranian Kurdistan.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    Multiple Authors

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH (ca. 702-765), the sixth imam of the Imami Shiʿites. He spent most of his life in Medina, where he built up a circle of followers primarily as a theologian, Ḥadith transmitter, and jurist (faqih).

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life

    Robert Gleaves

    life spanned the latter half of the Umayyad dynasty ruling from Damascus, which was marked by various rebellions, the rise of the ʿAbbasids, and the establishment of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings

    Robert Gleaves

    teaching is hampered by the fact that his views are reported in support of a number of contradictory theological and legal positions. 

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism

    Hamid Algar

    all the Sufi orders claim initiatic descent from the Prophet exclusively through ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb, the first imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, and many speak also of a selselat al-ḏahab (golden chain), linking them with all of the first eight of the Twelve Imams.