Table of Contents

  • JABA

    Peter Jackson

    (Jebe), 13th-century Mongol general of the Besüt (Bisut) tribe under Čengiz Khan. His original name was Jirḡoʾadai.

  • JABAL ʿĀMEL

    RULA ABISAAB

    , SHIʿITE ULAMA OF, in the Safavid Period. The Safavid monarchs sought prominent clerics who would strengthen their rule by promoting a standard urban system of  Shiʿite worship.

  • JABAL-E SERĀJ

    Erwin Grötzbach

    a small town in the province of Parvān in Afghanistan, located at the mouth of the Sālang valley in Kabul Kohestān to the north of the city of Charikar (Čārikār).

  • JABBĀR ḴĒL

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    the leading lineage of the Solaymān Ḵēl Paxtun tribe of the Ḡalzi/Ḡilzi tribal confederation of eastern and southeastern Afghanistan.

  • JABBĀRA

    P. Oberling

    a group of Shiʿite Arabs in Fārs province who, together with the Šaybāni, form the Arab tribe of the Ḵamsa tribal confederation.

  • JĀBER JOʿFI

    Maria Dakake

    , ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH,  a Kufan traditionist and companion of the fifth and sixth Shiʿite Imams, Moḥammad al-Bāqer and Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

  • JĀBERI

    Colin Pual Mitchell

    , MIRZĀ SALMĀN, vizier and prominent statesman during the reigns of Shah Esmāʿil II (1576-77) and Shah Moḥammad Ḵodābanda (1577-88).

  • JABḠUYA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. Although it is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record.

  • JACKAL

    Steven C. Anderson

    , Golden or Asiatic (Canis aureus, MPers. tōrag, NPers. tura, šaḡāl), a medium-size member of the dog family (Canidae) occurring throughout Afghanistan and Iran. Scavenging supplies a small percentage of the diet, especially in habitats away from humans; and carrion consists mainly of road kill and, around villages, garbage. Jackals are omnivorous, opportunistic feeders, eating fruits and vegetables as well as hunting small animals.

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  • JACKSON, ABRAHAM VALENTINE WILLIAMS

    William W. Malandra

    (1862-1937), pioneer of Iranian studies in America and prominent Iranist for half a century. The most important book of Jackson perhaps was Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran (1898). He was not among those who belittled indigenous traditions, nor did he embrace positivistic historiography. He had an abiding faith in the basic historicity of these sources.

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  • JADE

    Manuel Keene

    (nephrite; Pers. yašm, yašb, yašf, yaṣb). An extremely small range of pre-Islamic Iranian jades have thus far been published, despite the very ancient employment of jade in eastern Iran. The known material is often of extraordinary refinement, and testifies to an extensive influence on other jadecarving cultures, including the Chinese.

  • JADE i. Introduction

    Manuel Keene

    carvings in pre-Islamic Central and Western Asia was largely an east Iranian and Turkic phenomenon, and the same holds true for the Islamic tradition.

  • JADE ii. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades

    Manuel Keene

    Extant scabbard slides of softer and more brittle stones (e.g., lapis lazuli, rock crystal), as well as wood, suggest that the toughness of jade was not an essential requirement for this function. A number of other types of jade fittings on the warrior and his horse would often accompany the weapon’s mounts.

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  • JADE iii. Jade Carving, 4th century B.C.E to 15th century C.E.

    Manuel Keene

    The eleven ancient and medieval jades illustrated in the plates are representatives of a very large and expanding corpus of ancient and medieval Iranian jades. They are primarily discussed as works of art, but the ways in which they document the technological sophistication of the hardstone industries in Iran, and Iran’s cultural interrelationships, are also examined.

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  • JADIDISM

    K. Hitchens

    a movement of reform among Muslim intellectuals in Central Asia, mainly among the Uzbeks and the Tajiks, from the first years of the 20th century to the 1920s.

  • JAF (JĀF)

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    a once large Kurdish nomadic confederation living in south Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sanandaj area of Iranian Kurdistan.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    Multiple Authors

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH (ca. 702-765), the sixth imam of the Imami Shiʿites. He spent most of his life in Medina, where he built up a circle of followers primarily as a theologian, Ḥadith transmitter, and jurist (faqih).

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life

    Robert Gleaves

    life spanned the latter half of the Umayyad dynasty ruling from Damascus, which was marked by various rebellions, the rise of the ʿAbbasids, and the establishment of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings

    Robert Gleaves

    teaching is hampered by the fact that his views are reported in support of a number of contradictory theological and legal positions. 

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism

    Hamid Algar

    all the Sufi orders claim initiatic descent from the Prophet exclusively through ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb, the first imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, and many speak also of a selselat al-ḏahab (golden chain), linking them with all of the first eight of the Twelve Imams.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iv. And Esoteric sciences

    Daniel De Smet

    a major figure in Shiʿite esotericism, is purported to be the founder of occult science in Islam. According to Imami-Shiʿite tradition, his knowledge concerned “the exoteric (al-ẓāher), the esoteric (al-bāṭen), and the esoteric of the esoteric (bāṭen al-bāṭen).” 

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ v. And herbal medicine

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    work on medicine (Ṭebb al-Emām al-Ṣādeq) belongs to a genre of traditional herbal medicine attributed to the Shiʿite imams and known as the Medicine of the imams (ṭebb al-aʾemma), whose salient figure is Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

  • JAʿFAR B. MANṢUR-AL-YAMAN

    Hamid Haji

    a high-ranking Ismaʿili author who flourished in the 10th century, during the reigns of the first four Fatimid caliphs.

  • JAʿFAR B. MOḤAMMAD B. ḤARB

    Joseph van Ess

    , ABU’L-FAŻL AL-HAMDĀNI (d. 850), also called al-Ašajj ("scar-face" or "skull-broken"), Muʿtazilite theologian who lived in Baghdad.

  • JAʿFAR B. YAḤYĀ BARMAKI

    cross-reference

    See BARMAKIDS.

  • JAʿFAR ḴĀN AZ FARANG ĀMADA

    MARYAM SHARIATI

    acclaimed satirical drama in one act by ʿAli Nowruz, a pen name of the playwright Ḥasan Moqaddam (1895-1925).

  • JAʿFAR KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    cross-reference

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

  • JAʿFARI, ŠAʿBĀN

    H. E. Chehabi

    (1921-2006), a luṭi of the jāhel variety, athlete, and rightwing political agent from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, who later headed Persia’s traditional sports establishment (zur-ḵāna).

  • JAʿFARQOLI KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    cross-reference

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

  • JAFR

    Gernot Windfuhr

    a term of uncertain etymology used to designate the major divinatory art in Islamic mysticism and gnosis—the art  of discovering the predestined fate of nations, dynasties, religions, and individuals by a variety of methods.

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  • JAGARḴWIN

    Keith Hitchins

    (or Cegerxwin), pseudonym of Şêxmûs Hesen (1903-1984), considered by many the leading Kurdish poet of the 20th century writing in Kurmanji.

  • JAḠATU

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    an archeological site in Ḡazni province, Afghanistan, situated about 20 km north of Ḡazni on the route between Ḡazni and Wardak.

  • JAGHATAY

    cross-reference

    See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

  • JAḠMINI, MAḤMUD

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿOmar  (d. 1344), an astronomer from Jaḡmin, a village in Ḵᵛārazm. The author of a brief Arabic survey of mathematical astronomy.

  • JĀḠORI

    A. Monsutti

    a term of uncertain etymological origin for both a tribal section of the Hazāras and a district (woluswāli) of Ḡazni province in Afghanistan.

  • JAHĀN TIMÜR

    Charles Melville

    recognized briefly as Il-khan in Iraq and Mesopotamia in 1339-40 during the period of the collapse of the Il-khanate.

  • JAHĀN-E ZANĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Women’s World), short-lived magazine, 1921. Published first in Mašhad (four issues) and, after a lapse of about five months, in Tehran (one issue only). 

  • JAHĀN-MALEK ḴĀTUN

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    (d. after 1382), Injuid princess, poet, and contemporary of Ḥāfeẓ. The style and quality of her poetry suggest that she was acquainted with famous male contemporaries Ḥāfeẓ and ʿObayd Zākāni.

  • JAHĀNĀRĀ BEGUM

    Stephen Dale

    (1614-81), the eldest surviving daughter of the Mughal Emperor Šāh Jahān and his favorite wife, Momtāz Mahal.

  • JAHĀNBEGLU

    P. Oberling

    (or Jānbeglu), one of several Kurdish tribes transplanted from northwestern Persia to Māzandarān by Āḡā Moḥammad Khan Qajar (r. 1789-97).

  • JAHĀNGAŠT

    cross-reference

     See BOḴĀRI, SHAIKH JALĀL-AL-DIN.

  • JAHĀNGIR

    Lisa Balabanlilar

    the fourth Mughal emperor, the first of his dynasty to have been born in India (1569-1627).

  • JAHĀNGIR KHAN ŠIRĀZI

    cross-reference

    See ṢUR-E ESRĀFIL.

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE JOVAYNI

    Charles Melville

    , TĀRIḴ-E,  title of the history of the Mongols composed in 1252-60 by the Il-khanid Persian vizier, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Abu’l-Moẓaffar ʿAṭā-Malek Jovayni.

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE NĀDERI

    Ernest Tucker

    , TĀRIḴ-E (or Tāriḵ-e nāderi), one of the most important chronicles of the reign of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47) by his court secretary, Mirzā Moḥammad-Mahdi Khan EEstrābādi/Astarābādi.

  • JAHĀNŠĀH QARĀ QOYUNLU

    Cross-Reference

    See QARĀ QOYUNLU DYNASTY. Forthcoming.

  • JĀḤEẒ

    Michael Cooperson

    , ABU ʿOṮMĀN ʿAMR B. BAḤR (b. ca. 776; d. 868-9), the leading Arabic prose writer of the 9th century.

  • JAHM B. ṢAFWĀN

    Joseph van Ess

    , ABU MOḤREZ, Islamic theologian of the Umayyad period (d. 746). Documentation about him is scarce and not entirely reliable.

  • JAHN, KARL EMIL OSKAR

    J. T. P. DE Bruijn

    (1906-1985), Czech orientalist who specialized in Central Asian history, Persian historiography, and Turcology.

  • JAHROM

    SHIVA JA’FARI

    city and sub-province (šahrestān) in central Fārs Province, covering an area of 4,517 sq. km.