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(Jebe), 13th-century Mongol general of the Besüt (Bisut) tribe under Čengiz Khan. His original name was Jirḡoʾadai.
, SHIʿITE ULAMA OF, in the Safavid Period. The Safavid monarchs sought prominent clerics who would strengthen their rule by promoting a standard urban system of Shiʿite worship.
a small town in the province of Parvān in Afghanistan, located at the mouth of the Sālang valley in Kabul Kohestān to the north of the city of Charikar (Čārikār).
M. Jamil Hanifi
the leading lineage of the Solaymān Ḵēl Paxtun tribe of the Ḡalzi/Ḡilzi tribal confederation of eastern and southeastern Afghanistan.
a group of Shiʿite Arabs in Fārs province who, together with the Šaybāni, form the Arab tribe of the Ḵamsa tribal confederation.
, ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH, a Kufan traditionist and companion of the fifth and sixth Shiʿite Imams, Moḥammad al-Bāqer and Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.
Colin Pual Mitchell
, MIRZĀ SALMĀN, vizier and prominent statesman during the reigns of Shah Esmāʿil II (1576-77) and Shah Moḥammad Ḵodābanda (1577-88).
C. Edmund Bosworth
Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. Although it is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record.
Steven C. Anderson
, Golden or Asiatic (Canis aureus, MPers. tōrag, NPers. tura, šaḡāl), a medium-size member of the dog family (Canidae) occurring throughout Afghanistan and Iran. Scavenging supplies a small percentage of the diet, especially in habitats away from humans; and carrion consists mainly of road kill and, around villages, garbage. Jackals are omnivorous, opportunistic feeders, eating fruits and vegetables as well as hunting small animals.This Article Has Images/Tables.
William W. Malandra
(1862-1937), pioneer of Iranian studies in America and prominent Iranist for half a century. The most important book of Jackson perhaps was Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran (1898). He was not among those who belittled indigenous traditions, nor did he embrace positivistic historiography. He had an abiding faith in the basic historicity of these sources.This Article Has Images/Tables.