Table of Contents

  • INDRA

    W. W. Malandra

    the name of a minor demon (daēwa) in the Avesta, In sharp contrast to the Indra of the Ṛgveda [RV], the most celebrated god (devá) of the Vedic pantheon.

  • INDUS RIVER

    cross-reference

    See INDIA ii.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Multiple Authors

    : the foundation and development of modern industries in 20th-century Iran. Although generally characterized as an oil economy, Iran has a relatively rich history of industrialization going back to the early 20th century.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION i. THE REZA SHAH PERIOD AND ITS AFTERMATH, 1925-53

    Hassan Hakimian

    Archaic and underdeveloped infrastructure as well as a low level of human resources (lack of skilled and technical manpower) were limiting factors. The situation was, however, to undergo important changes after the 1920s, paving the way for the emergence of Iran’s nascent industrial sector from the 1930s onwards.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION ii. THE MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PERIOD, 1953-79

    M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian

    Public sector investment in this period started from a very slender base but soon witnessed an annual growth rate of 25 percent in real terms. According to the development expenditure data from the Plan Organization, more than 68 percent of government investment went into economic infrastructure, which was mainly composed of transportation and water.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION iii. THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1979-2000

    Parvin Alizadeh

    Available evidence, in fact, indicates that the share of the manufacturing sector in the economy declined after the Revolution. The share of manufacturing, which was around 19-20 percent of non-oil GDP by 1977, dropped to about 15 percent by 1990. The share of agriculture in Iran’s non-oil GDP, however, increased over the same period.

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  • INDUSTRY, TRADITIONAL

    cross-reference

    See CRAFTS.

  • INFLUENZA

    A. A. Afkhami

    In Persia, the first established evidence of influenza’s visitation dates back to the summer of 1833, when it erupted with great virulence in Tehran.

  • INHERITANCE

    Multiple Authors

    i. Sasanian period. ii. Islamic period.

  • INHERITANCE i. SASANIAN PERIOD

    Maria Macuch

    Our main source on jurisprudence during the Sasanian period is the Lawbook Hazār dādestān “One Thousand Judgements” of the 7th century.