Table of Contents


    Gernot Windfuhr

    Most extensive was the Arab settlement in eastern Iran and Greater Khorasan (including northwestern Afghanistan, and Central Asia, including Marv and Bukhara).

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Speakers of North-Eastern Aramaic have been in contact with Iranian languages in the western regions of the plateau and on the western side of the Zagros for some 3,000 years -- with Jewish settlement from Mesopotamia documented since the eighth century BCE, Christian emigration begun during the Parthian period, and the Mandaeans, settled in southeastern Mesopotamia and adjacent Khuzestan  by the 3rd century CE. 

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (1) Pre-Islamic

    Philip Huyse

    Iranian “literature” was for a long time essentially of oral nature as far as composition, performance, and transmission are concerned.

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (2) Classical


    We will pay special attention to the early formation and origins of different literary genres in Persian works, even though the very notion of literary genres is somewhat arbitrary and a subject of continuing debate.

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (3) Modern


    See FICTION.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.1) Overview

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    From the 2nd millennium BCE until Islam became dominant in Iran, a remarkable number of religious traditions existed there.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.2) Manicheism

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst and Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Called after the founding prophet Mani (216-74 or 277), Manicheism was a syncretistic religion that, combining elements of the various religions current in Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau at the time, claimed to be the ultimate religion.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.1) The Advent of Islam

    Hamid Algar

    Persian acquaintance with Islam began already in the time of the Prophet. Well known is the case of Salmān-e Fārsi, the Persian companion of the Prophet around whom many legends have been spun.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.2) Mongol and Timurid Periods

    Hamid Algar

    It is sometimes assumed that the general predominance of Sunnism in Persia was significantly weakened by the destruction of the ʿAbbasid caliphate by the Mongols in 1258.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.3) Shiʿism in Iran Since the Safavids

    Hamid Algar

    The Safavids originated as a hereditary lineage of Sufi shaikhs centered on Ardabil, Shafeʿite in school and probably Kurdish in origin. Their immediate following was concentrated in Azerbaijan.

  • IRAN xi. MUSIC

    Bruno Nettl


    Victoria Arakelova

    the annual international academic journal of the Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies, Yerevan (CCIS), founded in 1997.


    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    organization established in 1922 by prominent Parsis with the aim of reviving and strengthening cultural and other ties between the Parsis of India and Iran.


    Abbas Milani

    the oldest post-Islamic Revolution scholarly journal published since 1982 by the Iranian Diaspora.


    Parviz Alizadeh

    established in August 1962, the single pioneer of the automotive industry in Iran, assembling and manufacturing various motor vehicles and their spare parts.

  • IRĀN newspapers

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five newspapers, of which four were published in Persia and one in Baghdad, Iraq.


    Malcolm Byrne

    the linkage in the mid-1980s of two separate and distinct U.S. covert operations in Iran and Central America.


    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly paper published in Tehran from 5 Esfand 1305 to 28 Bahman 1306 Š. (25 February 1926-17 February 1927) as the organ of an association with the same name (Anjomān-e Irān-e javān).


    Jamšid Behnām

    (The society of young Iran), a society founded in January 1921 by a number of young intellectuals who had received their higher education in Europe.


    Nassereddin Parvin

    periodical published in the city of Rašt by the political activist Grigor Yaqikiān, 1929-30.