Table of Contents

  • INDRA

    W. W. Malandra

    the name of a minor demon (daēwa) in the Avesta, In sharp contrast to the Indra of the Ṛgveda [RV], the most celebrated god (devá) of the Vedic pantheon.

  • INDUS RIVER

    cross-reference

    See INDIA ii.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Multiple Authors

    : the foundation and development of modern industries in 20th-century Iran. Although generally characterized as an oil economy, Iran has a relatively rich history of industrialization going back to the early 20th century.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION i. THE REZA SHAH PERIOD AND ITS AFTERMATH, 1925-53

    Hassan Hakimian

    Archaic and underdeveloped infrastructure as well as a low level of human resources (lack of skilled and technical manpower) were limiting factors. The situation was, however, to undergo important changes after the 1920s, paving the way for the emergence of Iran’s nascent industrial sector from the 1930s onwards.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION ii. THE MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PERIOD, 1953-79

    M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian

    Public sector investment in this period started from a very slender base but soon witnessed an annual growth rate of 25 percent in real terms. According to the development expenditure data from the Plan Organization, more than 68 percent of government investment went into economic infrastructure, which was mainly composed of transportation and water.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION iii. THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1979-2000

    Parvin Alizadeh

    Available evidence, in fact, indicates that the share of the manufacturing sector in the economy declined after the Revolution. The share of manufacturing, which was around 19-20 percent of non-oil GDP by 1977, dropped to about 15 percent by 1990. The share of agriculture in Iran’s non-oil GDP, however, increased over the same period.

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  • INDUSTRY, TRADITIONAL

    cross-reference

    See CRAFTS.

  • INFLUENZA

    A. A. Afkhami

    In Persia, the first established evidence of influenza’s visitation dates back to the summer of 1833, when it erupted with great virulence in Tehran.

  • INHERITANCE

    Multiple Authors

    i. Sasanian period. ii. Islamic period.

  • INHERITANCE i. SASANIAN PERIOD

    Maria Macuch

    Our main source on jurisprudence during the Sasanian period is the Lawbook Hazār dādestān “One Thousand Judgements” of the 7th century.

  • INHERITANCE ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Agostino Cilardo

    In the pre-Islamic period, the Arab family was socially and politically composed of males (ʿaṣaba), namely those who were able to fight and defend the common property.

  • INJU

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴĀLEṢA.

  • INJU DYNASTY

    John Limbert

    (ca. 1325-53), one of the minor dynasties that controlled Persia following the collapse of the Il-Khanid state.

  • INOSTRANTSEV, KONSTANTIN ALEXANDROVICH

    Aliy I. Kolesnikov

    (1876-1941), Russian orientalist and historian of culture, best known abroad as the author of Sasanidskie et’udy (Etudes sassanides).

  • INSCRIPTIONS

    cross-reference

    See EPIGRAPHY.

  • INSECTIVORES

    Steven C. Anderson

    members of the mammalian order, small animals with several conservative anatomical characteristics. They retain five digits on all limbs and walk or run with soles and heels on the ground (plantigrade). Three families are represented in Persia and Afghanistan: hedgehogs, family Erinaceidae; moles, family Talpidae; and shrews, family Soricidae.

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  • INSECTS

    Steven C. Anderson

    The insects of Persia and Afghanistan belong to the Palearctic fauna, although in the eastern and southeastern parts of the region there are representatives of the Oriental fauna characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.

  • INSTITUT PASTEUR

    Amir A. Afkhami

    the institute for bacteriology and vaccination founded by the Persian government in 1921 as a branch of Institut Pasteur of Paris. The idea of establishing an institute for microbiological research and immunology in Iran was conceived in the aftermath of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Persia which killed hundreds of thousands of the country’s approximately ten million population.

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  • INSTITUTE FOR IRANIAN PHILOLOGY

    Claus V. Pedersen

    (INSTITUT FOR IRANSK FILOLOGI), University of Copenhagen. i. Forerunners. ii. History. Although the Institute was founded only in 1961, it has a long prehistory, since it is the natural culmination of about 200 years of Iranian studies in the Kingdom of Denmark.

  • INSTITUTE OF ISMAILI STUDIES

    Paul E. Walker

    founded in 1977 by H. H. Prince Karim Aga Khan, a gathering point for the Ismaili community’s interest in its own history and in its relationship with the larger world of Islamic scholarship and contemporary thought.