Table of Contents

  • ILLUMINATIONISM

    Hossein Ziai

    or Illuminationist philosophy, first introduced in the 12th century as a complete, reconstructed system distinct both from the Peripatetic philosophy  of Avicenna and from theological philosophy.

  • IMĀMIYA

    Cross-reference

    In history and theology, see: SHIʿITE DOCTRINE. In the clergy, see: SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • IMAMS IN TWELVER SHIʿA ISLAM

    Cross-Reference

    1st Imam:  see ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB

    2nd Imam: see ḤASAN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.

    3rd Imam: see ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.

    4th Imam: Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin (forthcoming).

    5th Imam: Moḥammad al-Bāqer (forthcoming).

    6th Imam: see JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    7th Imam: Musā al-Kāẓem (forthcoming).

    8th Imam: see ʿALI AL-REŻĀ.

    9th Imam: Mohammad al-Taqiy (forthcoming).

    10th Imam: see ʿALI AL-HĀDI.

    11th Imam: see ʿASKARI, ABU MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN B. ʿALI.

    12th Imam: see MAHDI.

  • IMMORTALS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. athánatoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus, in connection with Xerxes’ campaign against Greece in 480–479 BCE.

  • INĀLU

    cross-reference

    See ḴAMSA.

  • ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl.

  • INCEST AND INBREEDING

    Geert Jan Van Gelder

    Incest and inbreeding are two different but related aspects of marriage and human reproduction.

  • INDIA

    Multiple Authors

    This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran.

  • INDIA i. Introduction

    Christopher J. Brunner

    This entry presents a series of survey articles on selected areas of interaction and mutual influence between the two culture areas, including overviews of the enormous body of literature produced in India in the Persian language.

  • INDIA ii. Historical Geography

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    The geographical borders between the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent are well defined by features, such as mountain ranges, which represent the western limits of the Indus River valley.