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or Illuminationist philosophy, first introduced in the 12th century as a complete, reconstructed system distinct both from the Peripatetic philosophy of Avicenna and from theological philosophy.
1st Imam: see ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.
2nd Imam: see ḤASAN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.
3rd Imam: see ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.
4th Imam: see ʿALI B. AL-ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB.
5th Imam: Moḥammad al-Bāqer (forthcoming).
6th Imam: see JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ.
7th Imam: Musā al-Kāẓem (forthcoming).
8th Imam: see ʿALI AL-REŻĀ.
9th Imam: Mohammad al-Taqiy (forthcoming).
10th Imam: see ʿALI AL-HĀDI.
11th Imam: see ʿASKARI, ABU MOḤAMMAD ḤASAN B. ʿALI.
12th Imam: see MAHDI.
(Gk. athánatoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus, in connection with Xerxes’ campaign against Greece in 480–479 BCE.
C. Edmund Bosworth
wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl.
Geert Jan Van Gelder
Incest and inbreeding are two different but related aspects of marriage and human reproduction.
This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran.
Christopher J. Brunner
This entry presents a series of survey articles on selected areas of interaction and mutual influence between the two culture areas, including overviews of the enormous body of literature produced in India in the Persian language.
The geographical borders between the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent are well defined by features, such as mountain ranges, which represent the western limits of the Indus River valley.