Table of Contents

  • IRONSIDE, WILLIAM EDMUND

    Denis Wright

    , Field Marshall, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel and Ironside (1880-1959), noted for his important role as commander of British forces in Persia in 1920-21.

  • ʿISĀ B. ṢAHĀRBOḴT

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    medical author of the third/ninth century, from Gondēšāpur. descendant of an apparently Nestorian Christian Syro-Persian family.

  • ʿISĀ B. YAḤYĀ MASIḤI JORJĀNI

    David Pingree

    , Abu Sahl, physician, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer (d. after 925). Little is securely known about the life of this Christian scholar.

  • ISAAC

    Sebastian Brock

    bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Catholicos of the Church of the East (399-410). Isaac is said to have come from Kashgar.

  • ISAIAH, BOOK OF

    Shaul Shaked

    one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, traditionally arranged among those of the latter Prophets.

  • ISARDĀS NĀGAR

    Mario Casari

    (or Išwar Das, 1655-1749),  Hindu historian writing in Persian, author of  Fotuḥāt-e ʿālamgiri, a contemporary account of the reign of Awrangzēb.

  • ISFAHAN

    Multiple Authors

    ancient province and old city in central Iran. Isfahan city has served as one of the most important urban centers on the Iranian Plateau since ancient times.

  • ISFAHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    EIr, Xavier de Planhol

    The province consists of 52 hydrological units belonging to 9 basins and 27 sub-basins. Rivers are small and temporary, with the exception of the Zāyandarud, which totals 405 km in length, with an average annual discharge of 1,053 mcm, average annual precipitation of 450 mm, and a basin area of 27,100 km.2.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ISFAHAN ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    For Isfahan to become the capital of Iran, it was necessary that the country be delimited more or less as it is at present and that it be powerful and confident of its might, indifferent to relatively weak external threats. These two conditions were only met occasionally during the country’s history.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION

    Heidi Walcher, Habibollah Zanjani

    Isfahan’s population size from the Safavid through the Qajar periods, as reported by European travelers and diplomats, remained largely a matter of speculation.