Table of Contents

  • IRAQ vii. IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    Saskia M. Gieling

    The war between Iran and Iraq commenced with the Iraqi invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980, and ended with the bilateral acceptance of the UN Security Council Resolution 598 on 20 July 1988.

  • IRAQ viii. THE SHIʿITE SHRINE CITIES OF IRAQ

    cross-reference

    See ʿATABĀT.

  • IRAQ ix. IRANIAN COMMUNITY IN IRAQ

    cross-reference

    See DIASPORA vi.

  • IRAQ x. SHIʿITES OF IRAQ

    Meir Litvak

    Iraq was the cradle of Shiʿism, where it evolved as a political and religious movement, yet, Shiʿites became a majority there only during the 19th century.

  • IRAQ xi. SHIʿITE SEMINARIES

    Meir Litvak

    The communities of learning in the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbalā emerged as the most important centers of Twelver Shiʿite learning during the 19th century.

  • IRAQ xii. PERSIAN SCHOOLS IN IRAQ

    Eqbal Yaghmaʾi

    At the time of the 1905-11 Constitutional Revolution in Persia, local committees in Iraq created Persian-language schools with the backing of the leading, progressive religious scholars.

  • IRAQ xiii. PERSIAN NEWSPAPERS IN IRAQ: 1909-22

    Nassereddin Parvin

    The publication of Persian-language newspapers in Iraq began with the implementation of the 1909 Ottoman Constitutional Law.

  • IRON AGE

    Oscar White Muscarella

    In Iran the term Iron Age is employed to identify a cultural change that occurred centuries earlier than the time accorded its use elsewhere in the Near East, and not to acknowledge the introduction of a new metal technology.

  • IRON IN EASTERN IRAN

    B. A. Litvinsky

    Ancient iron objects in Central Asia were found for the first time at the southern mound of Anau (Turkmenistan) in 1904; these should be dated to the 9th-8th centuries BCE.

  • IRONSIDE, WILLIAM EDMUND

    Denis Wright

    , Field Marshall, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel and Ironside (1880-1959), noted for his important role as commander of British forces in Persia in 1920-21.