Table of Contents

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The term “Iranian language” is applied to any language which is descended from a proto-Iranian parent language (unattested by texts) spoken, presumably, in Central Asia in the late 3rd to early 2nd millennium BCE.

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (1) Earliest Evidence

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The Indo-Aryan and Iranian tribes separated about 2000 BCE., but attempts to correlate the proto-Indo-Iranians with archeological sites are all problematic.

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (2) Documentation

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Iranian languages are known from roughly three periods, commonly termed Old, Middle, and New (Modern).

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (3) Writing Systems

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Writing systems for Iranian languages include cuneiform (Old Persian); scripts descended from “imperial” Aramaic, two Syriac scripts, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Cyrillic, Georgian, and Latin.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (1) Overview

    Gernot Windfuhr

    This entry will discuss the non-Iranian languages spoken in Iran in the course of its history as the result of various peoples settling in parts of Iran and interacting with Iranian-speaking peoples who began to migrate to Iranian territories at the beginning of second millennium BCE. The entry includes linguistic sketches of languages or dialects.

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  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (2) In Pre-Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Of the three known pre-Islamic languages (Urartian, Kassite, and Elamite), only Urartian and Elamite are fairly well known.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (3) Elamite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Elamite was spoken in the southern Zagros regions, which correspond to the ancient cultural-political entities of Elam and Anshan, and expanded into Akkadian-speaking Susiana.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (4) Urartian

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Urartian was most likely the dominant vernacular around Lake Van and the upper Zab valley. It was written from the late ninth to seventh century BCE in the empire of Urartu.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (5) Kassite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The Kassites, Akkadian Kaššu, were mountain tribes probably somewhere in the central Zagros who ruled Babylon from the sixteenth to the middle of the twelfth century BCE.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (6) in Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The non-Iranian languages spoken today in Iran include members of the following language families: (1) Altaic, (2) Afro-Asiatic Semitic, (3) Indo-European, (4) Caucasian (5) Dravidian.