Table of Contents

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (1) Overview

    Gernot Windfuhr

    This entry will discuss the non-Iranian languages spoken in Iran in the course of its history as the result of various peoples settling in parts of Iran and interacting with Iranian-speaking peoples who began to migrate to Iranian territories at the beginning of second millennium BCE. The entry includes linguistic sketches of languages or dialects.

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  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (2) In Pre-Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Of the three known pre-Islamic languages (Urartian, Kassite, and Elamite), only Urartian and Elamite are fairly well known.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (3) Elamite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Elamite was spoken in the southern Zagros regions, which correspond to the ancient cultural-political entities of Elam and Anshan, and expanded into Akkadian-speaking Susiana.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (4) Urartian

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Urartian was most likely the dominant vernacular around Lake Van and the upper Zab valley. It was written from the late ninth to seventh century BCE in the empire of Urartu.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (5) Kassite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The Kassites, Akkadian Kaššu, were mountain tribes probably somewhere in the central Zagros who ruled Babylon from the sixteenth to the middle of the twelfth century BCE.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (6) in Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The non-Iranian languages spoken today in Iran include members of the following language families: (1) Altaic, (2) Afro-Asiatic Semitic, (3) Indo-European, (4) Caucasian (5) Dravidian.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (7) Turkic Languages

    Gernot Windfuhr

    In Iran, there are two distinct branches of Turkic: Oghuz Turkic languages and dialects that represent the southwestern branch of Turkic, and Khalaj, which presents a tiny branch of its own.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (8) Semitic Languages

    Gernot Windfuhr

     First Aramaic and then Arabic had considerable contact with Iranian languages. Their impact differs.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (9) Arabic

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Most extensive was the Arab settlement in eastern Iran and Greater Khorasan (including northwestern Afghanistan, and Central Asia, including Marv and Bukhara).

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Speakers of North-Eastern Aramaic have been in contact with Iranian languages in the western regions of the plateau and on the western side of the Zagros for some 3,000 years -- with Jewish settlement from Mesopotamia documented since the eighth century BCE, Christian emigration begun during the Parthian period, and the Mandaeans, settled in southeastern Mesopotamia and adjacent Khuzestan  by the 3rd century CE.