Table of Contents

  • IBEX, PERSIAN

    Eskandar Firouz, D. T. Potts

    Capra aegagrus, also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian pāzan. It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. Formerly it was numerous, found in almost all of Persia’s mountainous areas with rugged cliffs.

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  • ʿID-E FEṬR

    cross-reference

    See FASTING.

  • ʿID-E ḠADIR

    cross-reference

    See ḠADĪR ḴOMM.

  • ʿID-E MEHREGĀN

    cross-reference

    See MEHREGĀN.

  • ʿID-E NIMA-YE ŠAʿBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See Islam In Iran vii.

  • ʿID-E NOWRUZ

    cross-reference

    See NOWRUZ.

  • ʿID-E QORBĀN

    cross-reference

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

  • IDA

    Inna N. Medvedskaya

    a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the 9th century BCE.

  • IḎEH

    Kaveh Ehsani

    town and county in northeast Khuzestan Province. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by part of the Zagros range.

  • IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING

    N. Sims-Williams, D. Testen

    the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” that is, symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds. i. Terminology and conventions. ii. Ideographic writing in the Ancient Near East.

  • IGDIR

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes.  Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered.

  • IGNATIUS OF JESUS

    Paola Orsatti

    (Ignazio di Gesù, 1596-1667), an Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language, renowned mainly for his studies on religion and on the customs of the Mandaeans.

  • IHĀM

    N. Chalisova

    literally meaning “making one suppose,” a term applied to a rhetorical figure (badiʿ), a kind of play on words based on a single word with a double meaning.

  • IJEL

    John Woods

    Timurid prince (1394-1415), the fourth son of Mirānšāh b. Timur. Was named by the conqueror after one of his ancestors.

  • IJI, ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN IJI.

  • IL-ARSLĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Chorasmian king of the line of Anuštegin Ḡarčaʾi (r. 1156-72). He was the son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-Din Atsïz b. Moḥammad, , who had skillfully preserved the autonomy of Chorasmia.

  • IL-KHANIDS

    Multiple Authors

    the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan, the grandson of Čengiz Khan.

  • IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY

    REUVEN AMITAI

    The first part of this entry will be a short survey of the reigns of the various Il-khans. The second part will review some of the salient characteristics and institutions of the state they ruled.

  • IL-KHANIDS ii. Architecture

    Sheila S. Blair

    The architecture produced during the period of Il-khanid rule in Persia and Iraq is notable for its mammoth size, soaring height, sparkling color, and ingenious methods of covering space.

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  • IL-KHANIDS iii. Book Illustration

    Stefano Carboni

    The Il-khanid period (ca. 1260-ca. 1335) is no doubt the historical moment during which the art of painting, in particular in illustrated manuscripts, witnessed a dramatic increase in number, subject matter, artistic output, and patronage. The late 13th century and especially the first quarter of the 14th can be regarded as perhaps the most important formative period in the history of Persian painting, an epoch of great changes.

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  • IL-KHANIDS iv. Ceramics

    Peter Morgan

    This entry deals with glazed wares and tiles of the so-called “Sultanabad” (Solṭānābād) group, lajvardina (< Pers. lājvard “lapis lazuli”) wares, and luster wares produced in the Il-khanid period. The period extends from the fall of Baghdad in 1258 to the last dated luster tiles made in 1339.

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  • ILAK-KHANIDS

    Michal Biran

    (or Qara-khanids), the first Muslim Turkic dynasty that ruled in Central Asia from the Tarim basin to the Oxus river, from the mid-late 10th century until the beginning of the 13th.

  • ILĀM i. GEOGRAPHY - ii.

    M. Rezazadeh Shafarudi

    Until the mid-1930s Ilam was known as the Poštkuh of Lorestān as opposed to the Piškuh of Lorestān, which was located in the eastern part of the region. Since the Ṣafavid era Lorestān had been administered under the wālis (governors-general), who came from the chieftains of Lor-e Kuček tribes.

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  • ILĀM iii. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    According to the first national census of 1956, the present province (ostān) of Ilām used to be a sub-province (šahrestān) of the province of Kermānšāhān.

  • ILĀQ

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    medieval name of an area in what is now Uzbekistan, to the south of Tashkent along the middle reaches of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river.

  • ILĀQI, SAYYED ŠARAF-AL-ZAMĀN

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    follower of Avicenna and author in medicine, science, and philosophy (d. 1141).

  • ILBĀRS KHAN

    Yuri Bregel

    name of two rulers of Ḵᵛārazm in the 16th and 18th centuries: (1) Ilbārs Khan b. Buräkä (or Bürgä), from the ʿArab-šāhi (q.v.) branch of the Jochids, was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Ḵᵛārazm from 1511 to the end of the 17th century.

  • ILČI

    cross-reference

    See ELČI.

  • ILDEGOZIDS

    cross-reference

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN.

  • ILEDONG

    Mauro Maggi

    site in Central Asia of uncertain location, source of a number of Khotanese fragments.

  • ILLUMINATIONISM

    Hossein Ziai

    or Illuminationist philosophy, first introduced in the 12th century as a complete, reconstructed system distinct both from the Peripatetic philosophy  of Avicenna and from theological philosophy.

  • IMĀMIYA

    Cross-reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • IMMORTALS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. athánatoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus, in connection with Xerxes’ campaign against Greece in 480–479 BCE.

  • IMPERIAL BANK OF PERSIA

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • INĀLU

    cross-reference

    See ḴAMSA.

  • ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl.

  • INCEST AND INBREEDING

    Geert Jan Van Gelder

    Incest and inbreeding are two different but related aspects of marriage and human reproduction.

  • INDIA

    Multiple Authors

    This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran.

  • INDIA i. Introduction

    Christopher J. Brunner

    This entry presents a series of survey articles on selected areas of interaction and mutual influence between the two culture areas, including overviews of the enormous body of literature produced in India in the Persian language.

  • INDIA ii. Historical Geography

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    The geographical borders between the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent are well defined by features, such as mountain ranges, which represent the western limits of the Indus River valley.

  • INDIA iii. RELATIONS: ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    The conquest by Darius I of the territories of the Indian subcontinent west of the Indus for the first time created a clear relationship between India and Iran.

  • INDIA iv. RELATIONS: SELEUCID, PARTHIAN, SASANIAN PERIODS

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    Seleucus I (d. 281 BCE) led an expedition to India (Matelli, 1987) ca. 305 B.C.E. It ended, however, with the cession of  territories to a new Indian king, Candragupta Maurya.

  • INDIA v. RELATIONS: MEDIEVAL PERIOD TO THE 13TH CENTURY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The first political and military footholds of the Muslims in the subcontinent proper were in Sind, and at Multan in the middle Indus valley, secured in the early 8th century.

  • INDIA vi. Political and Cultural Relations (13th-18th centuries)

    Richard M. Eaton

    Relations between peoples of the Iranian plateau and India were extensive and uninterrupted between the 13th and 18th centuries. Migration, commerce, and politics all led to a range of cross-regional influences.

  • INDIA vii. RELATIONS: THE AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Mansour Bonakdarian

     The invasion of the Persian capital (Isfahan) by Ḡilzai Afghan forces in 1722 and the collapse of Safavid central authority had a marked impact on Indo-Persian relations,

  • INDIA viii. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, THE 19TH CENTURY

    Mansour Bonakdarian

     By the time of Āqā Moḥammad Khan’s founding of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, Persia’s diplomatic relations with the Mughal empire and other territories in the Indian subcontinent were gradually passing under the supervision of British authorities in India.

  • INDIA ix. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Mansour Bonakdarian

    The contributions made by various non-Iranian individuals and groups to the constitutional/ nationalist cause in Persia have long been acknowledged in the historiography of the revolution.

  • INDIA x. RELATIONS: PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian-Indian relations during the Pahlavi period will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • INDIA xi. RELATIONS: ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • INDIA xii. ISLAMIC DYNASTIES OF

    Cross-Reference

    See under individual dynasties.

  • INDIA xiii. INDO-IRANIAN COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

    Scott C. Levi

    Indo-Persian commercial relations were mediated by merchants originating from India, Persia, Afghanistan, and, from the beginning of the sixteenth century, Europe. Ethnic minority groups living in Persia, such as Armenians and Jews, also played an important role in Persia’s international commercial relations.

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  • INDIA xiv. Persian Literature in India

    Mario Casari

    The amount of Persian literature composed in the Indian subcontinent up to the 19th century is larger than that produced in Iran proper during the same period.

  • INDIA xv. Persian Correspondence Literature

    cross-reference

    See CORRESPONDENCE iv.

  • INDIA xvi. INDO-PERSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Stephen F. Dale

    Historical works in Persian began to appear in India in the era of the Delhi Sultanate during the late 13th to 14th centuries.

  • INDIA xvii. PERSIAN PRESS IN

    cross-reference

    See INDIA viii and INDIA ix. See also CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION vi and ḤABL AL-MATIN.

  • INDIA xviii. PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN INDIAN LANGUAGES

    Christopher Shackle

    Some Persian elements are present in most of the modern languages of the subcontinent of South Asia, as a consequence of the prolonged cultivation of Persian associated with pre-modern Indo-Muslim culture.

  • INDIA xix. INDIAN LITERARY INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian-Indian literary influences on Persian literature will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • INDIA xx. PERSIAN INFLUENCES ON INDIAN PAINTING

    Barbara Schmitz

    Between about 1300 and 1600, Persian painting styles had a sustained impact on the Indian art at the Sultanate and Mughal courts as well as on Hindu painting styles. The earliest dated manuscripts from the subcontinent that rely on Persian models for some of their motifs are from the late 14th century.

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  • INDIA xxi. INDIAN INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN PAINTING

    Barbara Schmitz

    During the 17th century, the flow of artistic influences between Persia and India reversed. Paintings and drawings in the developed Mughal style of the first quarter of the century were imported to the courts and bazaars of Isfahan.

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  • INDIA xxii. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON INDIAN ARCHITECTURE

    cross-reference

    See DECCAN ii; DELHI SULTANATE ii; GARDEN iii; HYDERABAD ii.

  • INDIA xxiii. INDIAN INFLUENCE ON PERSIAN CINEMA

    cross-reference

    See x, above.

  • INDIA xxiv. PERSIAN CALLIGRAPHY IN

    Cross-Reference

    Forthcoming.

  • INDIA xxv. MUTUAL MYSTICAL INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

    See under SUFISM.

  • INDIA xxvi. MUTUAL MUSICAL INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

      See under MUSIC.

  • INDIA xxvii. MUTUAL SCIENTIFIC INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

    See under SCIENCE.

  • INDIA xxviii. IRANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN INDIA

    Masashi Haneda

    Although emigration from the Iranian plateau to the Indian subcontinent is not a phenomenon specific to any particular period, the trend does seem to have grown after the foundation of Muslim governments on the subcontinent.

  • INDIA xxix. SHIʿITE COMMUNITIES IN

    Cross-Reference

    See CONVERSION iii. TO IMAMI SHI'ISM IN INDIA.

  • INDIA xxx. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND IRAN

    Scott C. Levi

    The Indian merchant diaspora in Central Asia and Persia emerged in the mid-16th century and remained active for over four centuries.

  • INDIA xxxi. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN 19TH-CENTURY AFGHANISTAN

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    Indian communities in Afghanistan performed an array of commercial functions in both the private and state sectors that served to integrate the Afghan economy and link it to surrounding markets in Central and South Asia.

  • INDIA xxxii. PARSI COMMUNITIES

    Cross-Reference

     See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. and PARSI COMMUNITIES ii.

  • INDIA xxxiii. INDO-MUSLIM PHYSICIANS

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Medicine constitutes the scientific field on which the largest corpus of works has been composed in Muslim India.

  • INDIAN OCEAN

    D. T. Potts

    This entry will deal with the role of Indian Ocean in international trade in the following periods:

    i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Islamic Period. See Supplement.

  • INDIGO

    Carol Bier

    (Pers. nil), the common name of a broad genus, Indigofera, with numerous species. Many tribal groups in Persia have relied on the use of indigo to achieve a stable blue color for the wool of carpets and kilims.

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH COMPANY

    Michael Rubin

    (IETC), a telegraph company that controlled telegraph wires between Tehran and the Russian border and onward through Russia and Germany to London.

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH DEPARTMENT

    Michael Rubin

    (IETD), a branch of the British Government of India, based in London, which managed a series of telegraph lines in Iran.

  • INDO-GREEK DYNASTY

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled over the region south of the Hindu Kush in the second and first century B.C.E.

  • INDO-IRANIAN FRONTIER LANGUAGES

    Elena Bashir

    This article surveys Indo-Iranian frontier languages the territory of present-day Pakistan, which have been under the cultural and linguistic influence of successive stages of the Persian language since the time of the Achaemenid Empire.

  • INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    cross-reference

    See IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS.

  • INDO-IRANIAN RELIGION

    Gherardo Gnoli

    Indo-Iranian comparative studies enable us to distinguish a fund of religious concepts, beliefs, and practices that are common to ancient Iran and ancient India.

  • INDO-PARTHIAN DYNASTY

    Christine Fröhlich

    The rulers of both dynasties took every opportunity to capture Kandahar, which changed hands between the two on a dozen occasions. While maritime disturbances were known to have driven merchants to use the caravan routes, during the periods of Mughal-Safavid rivalry over Kandahar, merchants would temporarily favor the more predictable maritime routes.

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  • INDO-SCYTHIAN DYNASTY

    R. C. Senior

    from Maues, the first (Indo-)Scythian king of India (ca. 120-85 BCE) to the mid-1st century CE. When precisely and under what circumstances Maues arrived in India is uncertain, but the expulsion of the Scythian (Saka/Sai) peoples from Central Asia is referred to in the Han Shu, where the cause given is their confrontation with the Ta Yüeh-chih, themselves undergoing an enforced migration.

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  • INDRA

    W. W. Malandra

    the name of a minor demon (daēwa) in the Avesta, In sharp contrast to the Indra of the Ṛgveda [RV], the most celebrated god (devá) of the Vedic pantheon.

  • INDUS RIVER

    cross-reference

    See INDIA ii.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Hassan Hakimian, M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian, Parvin Alizadeh

    : the foundation and development of modern industries in 20th-century Iran. Although generally characterized as an oil economy, Iran has a relatively rich history of industrialization going back to the early 20th century.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION i. THE REZA SHAH PERIOD AND ITS AFTERMATH, 1925-53

    Hassan Hakimian

    Archaic and underdeveloped infrastructure as well as a low level of human resources (lack of skilled and technical manpower) were limiting factors. The situation was, however, to undergo important changes after the 1920s, paving the way for the emergence of Iran’s nascent industrial sector from the 1930s onwards.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION ii. THE MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PERIOD, 1953-79

    M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian

    Public sector investment in this period started from a very slender base but soon witnessed an annual growth rate of 25 percent in real terms. According to the development expenditure data from the Plan Organization, more than 68 percent of government investment went into economic infrastructure, which was mainly composed of transportation and water.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION iii. THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1979-2000

    Parvin Alizadeh

    Available evidence, in fact, indicates that the share of the manufacturing sector in the economy declined after the Revolution. The share of manufacturing, which was around 19-20 percent of non-oil GDP by 1977, dropped to about 15 percent by 1990. The share of agriculture in Iran’s non-oil GDP, however, increased over the same period.

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  • INDUSTRY, TRADITIONAL

    cross-reference

    See CRAFTS.

  • INFLUENZA

    A. A. Afkhami

    In Persia, the first established evidence of influenza’s visitation dates back to the summer of 1833, when it erupted with great virulence in Tehran.

  • INHERITANCE

    Multiple Authors

    i. Sasanian period. ii. Islamic period.

  • INHERITANCE i. SASANIAN PERIOD

    Maria Macuch

    Our main source on jurisprudence during the Sasanian period is the Lawbook Hazār dādestān “One Thousand Judgements” of the 7th century.

  • INHERITANCE ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Agostino Cilardo

    In the pre-Islamic period, the Arab family was socially and politically composed of males (ʿaṣaba), namely those who were able to fight and defend the common property.

  • INJU

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴĀLEṢA.

  • INJU DYNASTY

    John Limbert

    (ca. 1325-53), one of the minor dynasties that controlled Persia following the collapse of the Il-Khanid state.

  • INOSTRANTSEV, KONSTANTIN ALEXANDROVICH

    Aliy I. Kolesnikov

    (1876-1941), Russian orientalist and historian of culture, best known abroad as the author of Sasanidskie et’udy (Etudes sassanides).

  • INSCRIPTIONS

    cross-reference

    See EPIGRAPHY.

  • INSECTIVORES

    Steven C. Anderson

    members of the mammalian order, small animals with several conservative anatomical characteristics. They retain five digits on all limbs and walk or run with soles and heels on the ground (plantigrade). Three families are represented in Persia and Afghanistan: hedgehogs, family Erinaceidae; moles, family Talpidae; and shrews, family Soricidae.

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  • INSECTS

    Steven C. Anderson

    The insects of Persia and Afghanistan belong to the Palearctic fauna, although in the eastern and southeastern parts of the region there are representatives of the Oriental fauna characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.

  • INSTITUT PASTEUR

    Amir A. Afkhami

    the institute for bacteriology and vaccination founded by the Persian government in 1921 as a branch of Institut Pasteur of Paris. The idea of establishing an institute for microbiological research and immunology in Iran was conceived in the aftermath of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Persia which killed hundreds of thousands of the country’s approximately ten million population.

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  • INSTITUTE FOR IRANIAN PHILOLOGY

    Claus V. Pedersen

    (INSTITUT FOR IRANSK FILOLOGI), University of Copenhagen. i. Forerunners. ii. History. Although the Institute was founded only in 1961, it has a long prehistory, since it is the natural culmination of about 200 years of Iranian studies in the Kingdom of Denmark.

  • INSTITUTE OF ISMAILI STUDIES

    Paul E. Walker

    founded in 1977 by H. H. Prince Karim Aga Khan, a gathering point for the Ismaili community’s interest in its own history and in its relationship with the larger world of Islamic scholarship and contemporary thought.

  • INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES AND RESEARCH

    Kazem Izadi

    (MOʾASSESA-YE MOṬĀLEʿĀT WA TAḤQIQĀT-E EJTEMĀʿI), an academic body established in 1958 at the University of Tehran for research, counseling, education, and publication.

  • INTAPHERNES

    cross-reference

    See VINDAFARNĀ.

  • INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

    Steven C. Anderson

    IN IRAN, AFGHANISTAN, AND NEIGHBORING CENTRAL ASIA. This category includes all animals without a vertebral column. Thus it is a term of convenience that, though widely used, has little biological meaning.

  • INVESTITURE

    Maria Brosius, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Jenny Rose

    the ceremonies and symbolic actions used to assert the assumption of rulership and to elicit affirmation of it. i. The Achaemenid period. ii. The Parthian period. iii. The Sasanian period.

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  • IONIAN REVOLT

    E. Badian

    the unsuccessful uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Achaemenid control, 499-493 BCE. The main and almost the only source for the Revolt is Herodotus of Halicarnassus. The revolt of the Ionians and of some Aeolians joining them had clearly not been a spontaneous rising. Dislike of Persian rule does seem, at this time, to have been universal among the western subjects.

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  • IQĀʿ

    Gen'ichi Tsuge

    (pl. iqāʿāt), an Arabic term used in texts on music to denote rhythmic mode (or cycle) or rhythmic pattern.

  • IQĀN

    cross-reference

    See KETĀB-E IQĀN.

  • IQBAL, MUHAMMAD

    Annemarie Schimmel

    spiritual father of Pakistan and leading Persian and Urdu poet of India in the first half of the 20th century (1877-1938). He was well versed in the various fields of European philosophy and thought. He was equally well read in the Eastern tradition, and special mention should be made of his analysis of Persian thought in his thesis of 1907.

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  • IRAJ

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    the youngest son of Ferēdun and the eponymous hero of the Iranians in their traditional history.

  • IRAJ MIRZĀ

    Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari

    , JALĀL-AL-MAMĀLEK, a major Persian poet and satirist of the early 20th century and one of the most popular poets of the late Qajar period (1874-1926). His intimate, idiomatic mode of expression and almost conversational tone initiated an entirely new trend in Persian poetry, which some critics have referred to as “the journalistic style.”

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  • IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    The following sub-entries will provide an overview of the unifying factors which constitute Iran through time and across space, while also showing the complexity and heterogeneity of the components of Iranian culture.

  • IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN

    Xavier de Planhol

    This article intends to examine the relationship between Iranian culture and its natural environment.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times

    Ehsan Yarshater

    This section provides a concise introduction to the history of Iran from its beginnings to modern times. The generally recognized periods of the country’s history are reviewed, and some of the major motifs or themes in the politics or culture of the various periods are discussed.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 1)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Iran in the Islamic Period (651-1980s). This section of Persian history begins with the conquest by Muslim Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Persia, the gradual conversion of the Persians to the faith of the conquerors, and some 200 years of Arab rule.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 2)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Formation of local dynasties. The Taherids (821-73). The first of these dynasties came into being when Ṭāher b. Ḥosayn was appointed the governor of Khorasan with full power.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 3)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Saljuqids (1040-1194). The plains of Central Asia, northwestern China, and western Siberia were breeding grounds for nomadic people, who kept multiplying and searching for new pastures.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 4)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Safavids (1501-1722). The advent of the Safavids constitutes one of the major turning points in Persian history.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 5)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Qajar dynasty (1779-1924). The Qajar were a Turkmen tribe who first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qezelbāš tribes that supported the Safavids.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 6)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Moḥammad Reza Shah (1941-79). The long history of Russian and British interventions in Persian affairs had fostered widespread resentment against the two great powers.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (3) Chronological Table

    Ehsan Yarshater

    A chronological table of events. This records major happenings of Iranian pre-history and history from the most ancient times to 2005.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (4) Index of Proper Names

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Index of proper names that occur in the chronological table.

  • IRAN iii. TRADITIONAL HISTORY

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Before assimilating the results of European research on Persian history, the Iranians were in possession of a historical tradition that combined a mixture of myth, legend, and factual history.

  • IRAN iv. MYTHS AND LEGENDS

    John R. Hinnells

    In the study of religion, myths are seen as narratives which encapsulate fundamental truths about the nature of existence, god(s), God(s), the universe. They explain the origin of the world or of a tribe or of a ritual.

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (1) A General Survey

    R. N. Frye

    The term “Iranian” may be understood in two ways. It is, first of all, a linguistic classification, intended to designate any society which inherited or adopted, and transmitted, an Iranian language.

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (2) Pre-Islamic

    C. J. Brunner

    This survey focuses on the early phase of the Iranian-speaking peoples’ presence on the plateau, during the early state-building phase.

  • IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (3). Islamic Period

    cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The term “Iranian language” is applied to any language which is descended from a proto-Iranian parent language (unattested by texts) spoken, presumably, in Central Asia in the late 3rd to early 2nd millennium BCE.

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (1) Earliest Evidence

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The Indo-Aryan and Iranian tribes separated about 2000 BCE., but attempts to correlate the proto-Indo-Iranians with archeological sites are all problematic.

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (2) Documentation

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Iranian languages are known from roughly three periods, commonly termed Old, Middle, and New (Modern).

  • IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS (3) Writing Systems

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Writing systems for Iranian languages include cuneiform (Old Persian); scripts descended from “imperial” Aramaic, two Syriac scripts, Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Cyrillic, Georgian, and Latin.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (1) Overview

    Gernot Windfuhr

    This entry will discuss the non-Iranian languages spoken in Iran in the course of its history as the result of various peoples settling in parts of Iran and interacting with Iranian-speaking peoples who began to migrate to Iranian territories at the beginning of second millennium BCE. The entry includes linguistic sketches of languages or dialects.

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  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (2) In Pre-Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Of the three known pre-Islamic languages (Urartian, Kassite, and Elamite), only Urartian and Elamite are fairly well known.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (3) Elamite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Elamite was spoken in the southern Zagros regions, which correspond to the ancient cultural-political entities of Elam and Anshan, and expanded into Akkadian-speaking Susiana.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (4) Urartian

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Urartian was most likely the dominant vernacular around Lake Van and the upper Zab valley. It was written from the late ninth to seventh century BCE in the empire of Urartu.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (5) Kassite

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The Kassites, Akkadian Kaššu, were mountain tribes probably somewhere in the central Zagros who ruled Babylon from the sixteenth to the middle of the twelfth century BCE.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (6) in Islamic Iran

    Gernot Windfuhr

    The non-Iranian languages spoken today in Iran include members of the following language families: (1) Altaic, (2) Afro-Asiatic Semitic, (3) Indo-European, (4) Caucasian (5) Dravidian.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (7) Turkic Languages

    Gernot Windfuhr

    In Iran, there are two distinct branches of Turkic: Oghuz Turkic languages and dialects that represent the southwestern branch of Turkic, and Khalaj, which presents a tiny branch of its own.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (8) Semitic Languages

    Gernot Windfuhr

     First Aramaic and then Arabic had considerable contact with Iranian languages. Their impact differs.

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (9) Arabic

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Most extensive was the Arab settlement in eastern Iran and Greater Khorasan (including northwestern Afghanistan, and Central Asia, including Marv and Bukhara).

  • IRAN vii. NON-IRANIAN LANGUAGES (10). Aramaic

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Speakers of North-Eastern Aramaic have been in contact with Iranian languages in the western regions of the plateau and on the western side of the Zagros for some 3,000 years -- with Jewish settlement from Mesopotamia documented since the eighth century BCE, Christian emigration begun during the Parthian period, and the Mandaeans, settled in southeastern Mesopotamia and adjacent Khuzestan  by the 3rd century CE. 

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (1) Pre-Islamic

    Philip Huyse

    Iranian “literature” was for a long time essentially of oral nature as far as composition, performance, and transmission are concerned.

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (2) Classical

    CHARLES-HENRI DE FOUCHÉCOUR

    We will pay special attention to the early formation and origins of different literary genres in Persian works, even though the very notion of literary genres is somewhat arbitrary and a subject of continuing debate.

  • IRAN viii. PERSIAN LITERATURE (3) Modern

    Cross-Reference

    See FICTION.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.1) Overview

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    From the 2nd millennium BCE until Islam became dominant in Iran, a remarkable number of religious traditions existed there.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (1) Pre-Islamic (1.2) Manicheism

    Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst and Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Called after the founding prophet Mani (216-74 or 277), Manicheism was a syncretistic religion that, combining elements of the various religions current in Mesopotamia and the Iranian plateau at the time, claimed to be the ultimate religion.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.1) The Advent of Islam

    Hamid Algar

    Persian acquaintance with Islam began already in the time of the Prophet. Well known is the case of Salmān-e Fārsi, the Persian companion of the Prophet around whom many legends have been spun.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.2) Mongol and Timurid Periods

    Hamid Algar

    It is sometimes assumed that the general predominance of Sunnism in Persia was significantly weakened by the destruction of the ʿAbbasid caliphate by the Mongols in 1258.

  • IRAN ix. RELIGIONS IN IRAN (2) Islam in Iran (2.3) Shiʿism in Iran Since the Safavids

    Hamid Algar

    The Safavids originated as a hereditary lineage of Sufi shaikhs centered on Ardabil, Shafeʿite in school and probably Kurdish in origin. Their immediate following was concentrated in Azerbaijan.

  • IRAN xi. MUSIC

    Bruno Nettl

  • IRAN AND THE CAUCASUS

    Victoria Arakelova

    the annual international academic journal of the Caucasian Centre for Iranian Studies, Yerevan (CCIS), founded in 1997.

  • IRAN LEAGUE

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    organization established in 1922 by prominent Parsis with the aim of reviving and strengthening cultural and other ties between the Parsis of India and Iran.

  • IRAN NAMEH

    Abbas Milani

    the oldest post-Islamic Revolution scholarly journal published since 1982 by the Iranian Diaspora.

  • IRAN NATIONAL COMPANY

    Parviz Alizadeh

    established in August 1962, the single pioneer of the automotive industry in Iran, assembling and manufacturing various motor vehicles and their spare parts.

  • IRĀN newspapers

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of five newspapers, of which four were published in Persia and one in Baghdad, Iraq.

  • IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIRS

    Malcolm Byrne

    the linkage in the mid-1980s of two separate and distinct U.S. covert operations in Iran and Central America.

  • IRĀN-E JAVĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly paper published in Tehran from 5 Esfand 1305 to 28 Bahman 1306 Š. (25 February 1926-17 February 1927) as the organ of an association with the same name (Anjomān-e Irān-e javān).

  • IRĀN-E JAVĀN, ANJOMAN-E

    Jamšid Behnām

    (The society of young Iran), a society founded in January 1921 by a number of young intellectuals who had received their higher education in Europe.

  • IRAN-E KABIR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    periodical published in the city of Rašt by the political activist Grigor Yaqikiān, 1929-30.

  • IRĀN-E MĀ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a political newspaper published in Tehran, 1943-60, with long interruptions. It was an influential liberal paper with nationalistic orientations.

  • IRĀN-E NOW

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of two political newspapers published in Tehran during the second and third decades of the 20th century.

  • IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    cross-reference

    See IRAQ vii.

  • IRAN-NAMEH

    Vahe Boyajian

    journal of Oriental studies, founded in Yerevan, Armenia, in May 1993 as a scholarly monthly publication in the Armenian language.

  • IRAN. JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INSTITUTE OF PERSIAN STUDIES

    C. Edmund Bosworth and Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis

    The British Institute of Persian Studies (BIPS) was inaugurated in December 1961 in the wake of Queen Elizabeth II’s official visit to Iran in March of that year.

  • IRĀN/LA REVUE IRAN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first philatelic magazine ever published in Persia; it was published from Mehr 1302 to Bahman 1311 Š. (September 1923-February 1933) as the organ of Kolub-e bayn-al-melali-e Irān, a society founded by Naṣr-Allāh Falsafi (q.

  • IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    Parsi lawyer and scholar (1881-1938). He served the Parsi community in many capacities. He was one of the founders of the Parsi Statistical Bureau, gave thrust to the move for the increase of housing accommodation for poor Parsis of Bombay, and was an ardent supporter of the Fasli (Faṣli) movement for revision of the Parsi calendar.

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  • IRANIAN IDENTITY

    Multiple Authors

    collective feeling by Iranian peoples of belonging to the historic lands of Iran. This sense of identity, defined both historically and territorially, evolved from a common historical experience and cultural tradition.

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY i. PERSPECTIVES

    Ahmad Ashraf

    Perspectives on Iranian identity have been influenced by competing views on the origins of nations.

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Gherardo Gnoli

    The idea of Iran as a religious, cultural, and ethnic reality goes back as far as the end of the 6th century BCE.

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY iii. MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Ahmad Ashraf

    Revival and reconstruction of the Iranian identity was unparalleled among the other ancient cultural areas that were incorporated into the Islamic world. Thus, while Syria and Egypt lost their languages under the hegemony of Arabic, Iran survived as the main cultural area in the emerging Islamic empire that maintained its distinct linguistic and cultural identity.

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  • IRANIAN IDENTITY iv. 19TH-20TH CENTURIES

    Ahmad Ashraf

    Comparative historians of nationalism acknowledge that Iran was among the few nations that experienced the era of nationalism with a deep historical root and experience of recurrent construction of its own pre-modern identity.

  • IRANIAN IDENTITY v. POST-REVOLUTIONARY ERA

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian identity during the post-revolutionary era will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • IRANIAN STUDIES

    Cross-Reference

    See under the names of individual countries and universities.

  • IRANIAN STUDIES, SOCIETY FOR

    Cross-Reference

    See SOCIETY FOR IRANIAN STUDIES.

  • IRĀNŠĀH

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    term now used by the Parsis as the name of their oldest sacred fire, the Ātaš Bahrām established originally at Sanjān and now installed at Udwada, both in Gujarat.

  • IRĀNŠĀH, BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    cross-reference

    See SALJUQS OF KERMAN.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (1)

    cross-reference

    See ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (2)

    EIr

    city, formerly Fahraj, and sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (3)

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    an encyclopedic collection of articles published under the auspices of the UNESCO National Commission in Iran. The ambitious idea, as presented in the preface of the first volume, was to produce a highly reliable condensed, but comprehensive, sourcebook covering every aspect of the history, culture, and civilization of Iran from ancient times to 1960.

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  • IRĀNŠAHR (4)

    Jamshid Behnam

    monthly Persian journal, published in forty-eight issues in Berlin by Ḥosayn Kāẓemzāda Irānšahr,  June 1922 to February 1927. Two principal tendencies can be distinguished in these articles:  a strong interest in ancient Persia and its language and culture, and belief in the potency of a nationalistic spirit.

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  • IRĀNŠAHR, ḤOSAYN KĀẒEMZĀDA

    Jamshid Behnam

    (1884-1962), ardent Iranian nationalist active during the First World War, prolific author on political, religious, and educational subjects, and publisher of the journal Irānšahr 1922-27; he resided in Berlin 1917-36, in Switzerland thereafter.

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  • IRĀNŠAHRI

    Dariush Kargar and EIr

    , ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author.

  • IRĀNŠĀN B. ABI’L-ḴAYR

    cross-reference

    See KUŠ-NĀMA.

  • IRANSHENASI

    Abbas Milani

    a journal of Iranian studies, began publication under the editorship of Jalāl Matini and with the help of generous Iranians who have been willing to subsidize it since the spring of 1989, when its first issue was published.

  • IRANZAMIN, TEHRAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

    J. Richard Irvine

    (Irānzamin, Madrasa-ye Baynalmelali-e Tehrān), a combined Iranian and American international school founded in 1967.

  • IRAQ

    Multiple Authors

    the southern part of Mesopotamia, known in the early Islamic period as del-e Irānšahr (lit. “the heart of the kingdom of Iran”), served as the central province of the Sasanian empire as well as that of the ʿAbbasid caliphate.

  • IRAQ i. IN THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS

    Michael Morony

    The late Sasanid era. The late Sasanid winter capital was located at the urban complex on the Tigris river called “the cities” (al-Madāʾen) by the Arabs that included Ctesiphon, Aspānpur, Veh-Antioḵ-e Ḵosrow, and Veh-Ardašir.

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  • IRAQ ii - iii. FROM THE MONGOLS TO THE SAFAVIDS

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    The Mongol capture of Baghdad in 1258 came at a time when Persian influence was on the rise but the city as a whole in decline.

  • IRAQ iv. RELATIONS IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD

    Rudi Matthee

    Iraq was frequently the scene and the object of the intermittent wars the Ottomans and the Safavids fought in the 16th and early 17nth century.

  • IRAQ v. AFSHARIDS TO THE END OF THE QAJARS

    Ernest Tucker

    The collapse of the Safavid dynasty in the 1720s ushered in a new round of conflict in Iraq that would continue through the first half of the 18th century.

  • IRAQ vi. PAHLAVI PERIOD, 1921-79

    Mohsen M. Milani

    Relations between Iran and Iraq underwent three different phases between 1921, when Britain installed Faysal Ibn Hossein as king of a newly formed nation-state of Iraq and 1979, when the Pahlavi dynasty was swept away by revolution.

  • IRAQ vii. IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    Saskia M. Gieling

    The war between Iran and Iraq commenced with the Iraqi invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980, and ended with the bilateral acceptance of the UN Security Council Resolution 598 on 20 July 1988.

  • IRAQ viii. THE SHIʿITE SHRINE CITIES OF IRAQ

    cross-reference

    See ʿATABĀT.

  • IRAQ ix. IRANIAN COMMUNITY IN IRAQ

    cross-reference

    See DIASPORA vi.

  • IRAQ x. SHIʿITES OF IRAQ

    Meir Litvak

    Iraq was the cradle of Shiʿism, where it evolved as a political and religious movement, yet, Shiʿites became a majority there only during the 19th century.

  • IRAQ xi. SHIʿITE SEMINARIES

    Meir Litvak

    The communities of learning in the shrine cities of Najaf and Karbalā emerged as the most important centers of Twelver Shiʿite learning during the 19th century.

  • IRAQ xii. PERSIAN SCHOOLS IN IRAQ

    Eqbal Yaghmaʾi

    At the time of the 1905-11 Constitutional Revolution in Persia, local committees in Iraq created Persian-language schools with the backing of the leading, progressive religious scholars.

  • IRAQ xiii. PERSIAN NEWSPAPERS IN IRAQ: 1909-22

    Nassereddin Parvin

    The publication of Persian-language newspapers in Iraq began with the implementation of the 1909 Ottoman Constitutional Law.

  • IRON AGE

    Oscar White Muscarella

    In Iran the term Iron Age is employed to identify a cultural change that occurred centuries earlier than the time accorded its use elsewhere in the Near East, and not to acknowledge the introduction of a new metal technology.

  • IRON IN EASTERN IRAN

    B. A. Litvinsky

    Ancient iron objects in Central Asia were found for the first time at the southern mound of Anau (Turkmenistan) in 1904; these should be dated to the 9th-8th centuries BCE.

  • IRONSIDE, WILLIAM EDMUND

    Denis Wright

    , Field Marshall, 1st Baron Ironside of Archangel and Ironside (1880-1959), noted for his important role as commander of British forces in Persia in 1920-21.

  • ʿISĀ B. ṢAHĀRBOḴT

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    medical author of the third/ninth century, from Gondēšāpur. descendant of an apparently Nestorian Christian Syro-Persian family.

  • ʿISĀ B. YAḤYĀ MASIḤI JORJĀNI

    David Pingree

    , Abu Sahl, physician, philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer (d. after 925). Little is securely known about the life of this Christian scholar.

  • ISAAC

    Sebastian Brock

    bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Catholicos of the Church of the East (399-410). Isaac is said to have come from Kashgar.

  • ISAIAH, BOOK OF

    Shaul Shaked

    one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, traditionally arranged among those of the latter Prophets.

  • ISARDĀS NĀGAR

    Mario Casari

    (or Išwar Das, 1655-1749),  Hindu historian writing in Persian, author of  Fotuḥāt-e ʿālamgiri, a contemporary account of the reign of Awrangzēb.

  • ISFAHAN

    Multiple Authors

    ancient province and old city in central Iran. Isfahan city has served as one of the most important urban centers on the Iranian Plateau since ancient times.

  • ISFAHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    EIr, Xavier de Planhol

    The province consists of 52 hydrological units belonging to 9 basins and 27 sub-basins. Rivers are small and temporary, with the exception of the Zāyandarud, which totals 405 km in length, with an average annual discharge of 1,053 mcm, average annual precipitation of 450 mm, and a basin area of 27,100 km.2.

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  • ISFAHAN ii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    For Isfahan to become the capital of Iran, it was necessary that the country be delimited more or less as it is at present and that it be powerful and confident of its might, indifferent to relatively weak external threats. These two conditions were only met occasionally during the country’s history.

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  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION

    Heidi Walcher, Habibollah Zanjani

    Isfahan’s population size from the Safavid through the Qajar periods, as reported by European travelers and diplomats, remained largely a matter of speculation.

  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (1) The Qajar Period

    Heidi Walcher

    Moḥammad-Mahdi Arbāb, a native of Isfahan, maintained that, at the time of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah’s accession in 1848, there were 200,000 city inhabitants, with that number decreasing to about 80,000 for a period before growing again to nearly 120,000 during the governorship of Ẓell-al-Solṭān.

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  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (2) Isfahan Province

    Habibollah Zanjani

    In terms of population distribution, the sub-provinces of Isfahan (with more than 1.6 million), Kāšān, and Najafabād (with more than 300,000) were the most populated, while the sub-provinces of Naṭanz, Fereydunšahr, and Ardestān were the least populated with populations of less than 50,000 persons.

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  • ISFAHAN iii. POPULATION (3) Isfahan City

    Habibollah Zanjani

    The city of Isfahan, as the capital of Isfahan Province, accounted, in 1996, for about 32.2 percent of the total population of the province and 43.4 percent of its urban population. Isfahan is also the third most populated city in the country, behind Tehran and Mashad.

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  • ISFAHAN iv. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    J. Hansman and EIr

    The Arab geographers  report that the Sasanian city of Isfahan comprised two adjoining towns: Jayy, the fortified town and province center and, two miles (mil) away, Yahudiya, a Jewish settlement.

  • ISFAHAN v. LOCAL HISTORIOGRAPHY

    JÜRGEN PAUL

    Isfahan is exceptional in the number and variety of works of local historiography; no other Persian city has attracted nearly as many such works.

  • ISFAHAN vi. MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    Hossein Kamaly

    The history of Isfahan prior to the city’s efflorescence in the 17th century often traced alternating cycles of urbanization and de-urbanization.

  • ISFAHAN vii. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Masashi Haneda and Rudi Matthee

    Isfahan came under Safavid rule in 1503 following Shah Esmāʿil’s defeat of Solṭān Morād, the Āq Qoyunlu ruler of Erāq-e ʿAjam, near Hamadān.

  • ISFAHAN viii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Heidi Walcher

    The historical changes affecting the Isfahan of this period included loss of its status as the royal capital and its transformation into a major provincial city.

  • Isfahan ix. THE PAHLAVI PERIOD AND THE POST-REVOLUTION ERA

    Habib Borjian

    In the process of consolidating his power in Isfahan, Reza Shah managed to constrain two powerful social groups: the Shiʿite clergy and the Baḵtiāri tribesmen.

  • ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

    According to the French traveler Jean Chardin, in the late 17th century Isfahan housed some 162 mosques, 48 theological colleges (madrasa), 1,802 caravansaries, and 273 bathhouses.

  • Isfahan x. MONUMENTS (1) A Historical Survey

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

     Isfahan’s monuments developed, in the Islamic era: first, in the early medieval period under the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate and Buyid patronage. Many of the extant monuments of Isfahan, however, date to two periods in history when the city served as the capital of the ruling dynasties of the Great Saljuqs (1040-1194) and the Safavids (1501-1722).

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  • Isfahan x. Monuments (2) Palaces

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

    European visitors to Safavid Persia, for example, found themselves increasingly bound by Isfahan, where they were able to gain a royal audience or conduct their business with the court and government bureaucracy without having to follow the itinerant monarchs.

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  • Isfahan x. Monuments (3) Mosques

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

    Isfahan is known historically for its large number of mosques. According to Abu Noʿaym of Isfahan, the first large mosque in Isfahan was built during the Caliphate of Imam ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb (r. 656-61). The French traveler Jean Chardin counted 162 mosques during his travels to Isfahan in the middle of the 17th century.

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  • Isfahan x. Monuments (4) Madrasas

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

    The earliest extant madrasa in Isfahan is the 1325 Emāmi Madrasa, which is also known as the Madrasa-ye Bābā Qāsem after the name of its first teacher, who is buried in a nearby tomb. As in Persian mosque type, this and most other madrasas in Persia follow the four-ayvān courtyard-centered plan.

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  • Isfahan x. Monuments (5) Bridges

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

    On the southern edge of the city of Isfahan lies the Zāyandarud River, the unnavigable river that has been the major source of water in the region since the earliest settlements in its environs. Until the transfer of the Safavid capital to Isfahan in the late 16th century, the river was well outside the city walls.

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  • Isfahan x. Monuments (6) Bibliography

    Sussan Babaie with Robert Haug

  • Isfahan xi. SCHOOL OF PAINTING AND CALLIGRAPHY

    Massumeh Farhad

    The “Isfahan” school of painting and calligraphy generally refers to works of art associated with the city from about 1597-98, when it was chosen as the Safavid capital, until the Afghan invasion of 1722. In the second half of the 17th century, many Isfahani artists  began experimenting with Europeanized pictorial concepts, such as modeling and shading—the second phase of the “Isfahan” school of painting.

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  • Isfahan xii. BAZAAR: PLAN AND FUNCTION

    Willem Floor

    The bazaar of Isfahan is one of the best-preserved examples of the kind of large, enclosed, and covered bazaar complex that was typical of most cities in the Muslim world prior to the 20th century. The oldest areas of the present-day bazaar date from the early 17th century; its first stone was laid in 1603.

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  • Isfahan xiii. CRAFTS

    Habib Borjian and EIr

    Isfahan has maintained its position as a major center for traditional crafts in Persia. The crafts of Isfahan encompass textiles, carpets, metalwork, woodwork, ceramics, painting, and inlay works of various kind. The work is carried out in different settings including small industrial and bazaar workshops, in the homes of craftsmen and women, and in rural cottage industries.

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  • Isfahan xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES

    Habib Borjian

    This sub-section is divided into the following parts: (1) Modern Economy of the Province; (2) Industries of Isfahan City.

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  • Isfahan xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES (1) The Province

    Habib Borjian

    The distribution of economic activities within Isfahan, with an urbanism of 76 percent, is highly uneven. The oasis of Isfahan, watered by the Zāyandarud, is responsible for nearly half of rural activities, while the other half is spread out across the province.

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  • Isfahan xiv. MODERN ECONOMY AND INDUSTRIES (2) Isfahan City

    Habib Borjian

    The stagnation experienced after the fall of the Safavids was even more marked in the 19th century, owing to European competition that had rendered many local industries practically extinct.

  • Isfahan xv. EDUCATION AND CULTURAL AFFAIRS

    Maryam Borjian and Habib Borjian

    The Lazarists established themselves in Isfahan in the early 1860s. With the support of the prince-governor Masʿud Mirzā Ẓell-al-Solṭān, they founded in 1875 schools for both boys and girls and an infirmary. These appear to be the predecessors of the boys school L’Etoile du Matin and the girls school Rudāba.

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  • Isfahan xvi. FOLKLORE AND LEGEND

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Systematic collection of the folklore of Isfahan is mostly due to Amirqoli Amini, whose first publication was a collection of Persian dicta entitled hazār o yak soḵan.

  • Isfahan xvii. ARMENIAN COMMUNITY

    Cross-Reference

    See JULFA.

  • Isfahan xviii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Amnon Netzer

    According to Armenian sources, (Moses Khorenatsʿi, tr. Thomson, p. 293) the Sasanian Šāpūr II transferred many Jews from Armenia and settled them in Isfahan. According to the Middle Persian text Šahris-tānihā ī Ērān, the Sasanian king, Yazdegerd I, settled Jews in Jay (Gay) at the request of his Jewish wife Šōšan-doḵt.

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  • Isfahan xix. JEWISH DIALECT

    Donald Stilo

    The Jewish dialects of Isfahan, Kāshān, Hamadān, Borujerd, Yazd, Kermān and others belong to the Central dialect group of Northwestern Iranian. All of Northwestern Iranian languages, in turn, are descended from Median, whereas Persian (including Middle Persian or Pahlavi) belongs to the Southwestern Iranian (SWI) group and are descended from Old Persian.

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  • Isfahan xx. GEOGRAPHY OF THE MEDIAN DIALECTS OF ISFAHAN

    Habib Borjian

    The continuum of Central Plateau Dialects appears along a northwest-souteast axis traversing the modern provinces of Hamadān, Markazi, Isfahan, and Yazd, that is, the area of Ancient Media Major.

  • Isfahan xxi. PROVINCIAL DIALECTS

    Donald Stilo

    The Iranian languages of Isfahan Province are of three basic types: Northwest Iranian dialects belonging to the Central Plateau Dialect group, and two different types of Southwest Iranian  languages: slightly divergent dialects of Persian, but intelligible to the standard language, and  large pockets of Lori.

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  • Isfahan xxii. GAZI DIALECT

    Donald Stilo

    Gazi, spoken in the city of Gaz in the district of Borḵᵛār (dialect: bolxār), belongs to the Central Plateau Dialect group of Northwestern Iranian (NWI) languages. Gazi, the Jewish dialect of Isfahan, Sedehi, and probably other uninvestigated dialects of the Gaz-Isfahan area, for instance, Segzi, Jarquyaʾi, and others are grouped together as one subgroup of CPD.

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  • Isfahan Mode

    Cross-Reference

    a dastgāh in Persian music. See BAYĀT-E EṢFAHĀN.

  • ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY

    Sajjad H. Rizvi

    term coined to describe a philosophical and mystical movement patronized by the court of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629), centered in the new Safavid capital of Isfahan.

  • ISIDORUS OF CHARAX

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    author of the Stathmoì Parthikoí (in Latin Mansiones Parthicae) “Parthian Stations,” which is the only Greek text preserved at all of the genre of the itinerary or route description.

  • IŠKATA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    in the Avesta the name of a mountain and of the land (situated in the Hindu Kush region) which is dominated by this mountain.

  • ISLAM AKHUN

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    (Eslām-āḵūn), treasure-seeker and swindler active in Khotan and neighboring areas between 1894 and 1901, best known, however, as an adept forger of manuscripts and block prints. He was eventually unmasked by Sir Aurel Stein (1862-1943) in 1901.

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  • ISLAM IN IRAN i - iv

    Multiple Authors

    The following series of articles provide an overview of some historical, contemporary, and especially political aspects of the topic that are of special interest and relevance in the world today.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN v. MESSIANIC ISLAM IN IRAN

    Abbas Amanat

    Messianism is one of the most powerful, diverse and enduring expressions of Islam in Iran throughout its long history.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN vi. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN SUNNI ISLAM

    Said Amir Arjomand

    The Savior is a descendant of the Prophet whose expected return to rule the world will restore justice, peace, and true religion.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN vii. THE CONCEPT OF MAHDI IN TWELVER SHIʿISM

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    Mahdism in Twelver Shiʿism inherited many of its elements from previous religious trends.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN viii. THE OCCULTATION OF MAHDI

    cross-reference

    See ḠAYBA.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN ix. THE DEPUTIES OF MAHDI

    Verena Klemm

    according to Twelver Shiʿite tradition, the four intermediaries between the Hidden Imam and the faithful during his “Minor Occultation,” 874-941 CE.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN x. THE ROOTS OF POLITICAL SHIʿISMs

    Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi

    By “political Shiʿism” we mean here the politicization of theological and legal doctrines of Twelver Shiʿism among some thinkers, in order to make of these doctrines an ideology of legitimization of religious authority and power.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xi. JIHAD IN ISLAM

    David Cook

    The term jihad (Ar. jehād “struggle, striving”) occurs (either in its root or derivatives) about forty times in the Qurʾān with the secondary, but dominant, meaning of “regulated warfare with divine sanction.”

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xii. MARTYRDOM IN ISLAM

    Cross-Reference

    Forthcoming online.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xiii. ISLAMIC POLITICAL MOVEMENTS IN 20TH CENTURY IRAN

    Ahmad Ashraf

    New Islamic political movements first emerged in the Near East, the Indian Subcontinent, and Indonesia in the middle of the 19th century.

  • ISLAM IN IRAN xiv - xviii

    Cross-Reference

  • ISMAʿILISM

    Multiple Authors

    a major Shiʿite Muslim community. The Ismaʿilis have had a long and eventful history dating back to the middle of the 2nd/8th century when the Emāmi Shiʿis split into several groups.

  • ISMAʿILISM i. ISMAʿILI STUDIES

    Farhad Daftary

    In its modern and scientific form, dating to the 1930s, Ismaʿili studies represents one of the newest fields of Islamic studies.

  • ISMAʿILISM ii. ISMAʿILI HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Farhad Daftary

    The general lack of Ismaʿili interest in historiography is well attested by the fact that only a few works of historical nature have been found in the rich corpus of Ismaʿili literature.

  • ISMAʿILISM iii. ISMAʿILI HISTORY

    Farhad Daftary

    On the death of Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq in 148/765 his followers from among the Imami Shiʿites split into six groups, of which two may be identified as proto-Ismaʿilis or earliest Ismaʿilis.

  • ISMAʿILISM iv - x

    cross-reference

  • ISMAʿILISM xi. ISMAʿILI JURISPRUDENCE

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    The Ismaʿili system of jurisprudence was founded after the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa.

  • ISMAʿILISM xii. ISMAʿILI HADITH

    Cross-Reference

    See HADITH iii.

  • ISMAʿILISM xiii. ISMAʿILI LITERATURE IN PERSIAN AND ARABIC

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    Ismaʿili literature (all the written products of scholarly disciplines delineated by learning, religion, and science) refers to the literary production of more than a millennium.

  • ISMAʿILISM xiv. ISMAʿILISM IN GINĀN LITERATURE

    Ali Sultaan Ali Asani

    Nezāri Ismaʿili texts from the Indian Subcontinent exhibit an adaptive response to the region’s complex religious, literary, and cultural environment.

  • ISMAʿILISM xv. NEZĀRI ISMAʿILI MONUMENTS

    Peter Willey

    The principal monuments of the Nezāri Ismaʿili state, which also defined and defended its boundaries, were the exceptionally well-constructed and provisioned castles.

  • ISMAʿILISM xvi. MODERN ISMAʿILI COMMUNITIES

    Azim Nanji and Zulfikar Hirji

    The Ismaʿilis consist of two main branches—the Nezāri Ismaʿilis and the Mustaʿlian Ṭayyebi Ismaʿilis. Both have their roots in the Fatimid period of Ismaʿili history.

  • ISMAʿILISM xvii. THE IMAMATE IN ISMAʿILISM

    Azim Nanji

    in common with all major Shiʿite groups, the Ismaʿilis believe that the Imamate is a divinely sanctioned and guided institution.

  • ISRAEL

    Multiple Authors

    : relations with Iran. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Diplomatic and political relations. ii. The Jewish Persian community: forthcoming. iii. Iranian Studies in Israel: forthcoming. iv. Persian art collections in Israel: forthcoming.

  • ISRAEL i. RELATIONS WITH IRAN

    David Menashri, Trita Parsi

    The relationship between Israel and Iran has, since the very inception of the Jewish state in 1948, been a complex function of Iran’s geo-strategic imperatives as a non-Arab, non-Sunni state.

  • ISRAEL ii. JEWISH PERSIAN COMMUNITY

    David Yeroushalmi

    Jews of Persian origin and their descendants who live in the State of Israel and constitute an integral and active part of its general population.

  • ISRAEL iii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    Shaul Shaked

    A department of Iranian Studies was only formally established in Israel in 1970, but scholars working in Israel have been interested in aspects of Iranian history and culture since long before that date.

  • ISRAEL iv. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    RACHEL MILSTEIN

    Iron Age II-III is represented by a few clay rhytons, including one with human face and hands; anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels; tiny animals made of baked clay and frit; a metal figurative comb; an Elamite figure of a goddess; a finial of a standard portraying two lions from Luristan; and various kinds of daily objects.

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  • ISRĀʾILIYĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See QEṢAṢ AL-ANBIĀʾ.

  • ITALY

    Multiple Authors

    : relations with Iran. Overview of the entry. i. Introduction. ii. Diplomatic and commercial relations. iii. Cultural relations. iv. Travel accounts. v. Iranian Studies, pre-Islamic. vi. Excavations in Iran. vii. Iranian Studies, Islamic period. viii. Persian manuscripts. ix. Persian art collections. x. Lirica Persica. xi. Translations of Persian works into Italian. xii. Translations of Italian works into Persian. xiii. Iranians in Italy. xiv. Current centers of Iranian Studies in Italy. xv. IsMEO

  • Italy i. INTRODUCTION

    Carlo G. Cereti

    Direct relations between the Italian peninsula and the Iranian plateau date at least from the Parthian period,  when the border between the Arsacids and the Roman Empire was set on the Euphrates.

  • Italy ii. DIPLOMATIC AND COMMERCIAL RELATIONS

    Mario Casari

    A privileged relationship between Iran and Italy dates back to the age of the ancient Roman and Persian empires. Despite their ever-changing internal affairs, the two political centers of Europe and Asia, throughout the entire ancient time, experienced long lasting contacts.

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  • Italy iii. CULTURAL RELATIONS

    Mario Casari

    during the Middle Ages, when Italy and Persia were not clearly definable cultural entities, the translated works of significant Persian literature had a great influence on Italian and European culture.

  • Italy iv. TRAVEL ACCOUNTS

    Michele Bernardini, Anna Vanzan

    Italian travel accounts represent a major source for the history of Iran, especially that of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

  • Italy v. IRANIAN STUDIES, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Carlo G. Cereti

    Although Italian contacts with Iran date from ancient times, scientific interest in pre-Islamic Iran cannot be traced earlier than the second half of the eighteenth century.

  • Italy vi. ITALIAN EXCAVATIONS IN IRAN

    Pierfrancesco Callieri, Bruno Genito

    From the early 20th century on, Italians participated in the scholarly investigation of ancient Iran, but direct involvement in field archeology dates from relatively recent times.

  • Italy vii. IRANIAN STUDIES, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Mario Casari

    The earliest known references to Persia by Italian writers are gleaned from numerous notes in the oldest medieval travel accounts, dating from the 13th century onwards.

  • Italy viii. PERSIAN MANUSCRIPTS

    Paola Orsatti

    Italy houses 439 Persian manuscripts in two public archives and thirty public libraries located in fifteen different cities.

  • Italy ix. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    M. V. Fontana

    ix. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS Since the Middle Ages, Italians have been some of the greatest collectors of Islamic art in Europe. The Islamic market that Italy drew on was very large, and some of the most opulent works were imported from Persia.

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  • Italy x. LIRICA PERSICA

    Daniela Meneghini

    a project set up in 1989 by the School of Persian Literary Studies at Venice University to create a database for Persian lyric verse.

  • Italy xi. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO ITALIAN

    Mario Casari

    The period of Italian translations of Persian literary works from the Islamic era began, and not by accident, in the post-Risorgimento (Italian unification) age (1880s) with epic poetry. In fact, apart from the appearance of occasional literary passages, the first truly representative translation is the monumental version of the Šāh-nāma by Italo Pizzi (1886-88).

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  • Italy xii. TRANSLATIONS OF ITALIAN WORKS INTO PERSIAN

    MARIO CASARI

    Two texts by Italian authors appear to be the first known translations of European literary works into Persian carried out in the modern age.

  • Italy xiii. IRANIANS IN ITALY

    Mario Casari

    The presence of Persians in Italy has always been fragmentary and discontinuous, which never led to any extended, cohesive social groups of permanent residents.

  • Italy xiv. CURRENT CENTERS OF IRANIAN STUDIES IN ITALY

    Carlo G. Cereti

    Studies on subjects related to the Iranian cultural world can boast an ancient tradition in Italy, but not as an independent field of study at academic level. Things have considerably changed in recent times.

  • Italy xv. IsMEO

    Antonio Panaino

    acronym for the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (‘Italian Institute for Middle and Far East’), founded in 1933.

  • IVANOV, PAVEL PETROVICH

    Yuri Bregel

    (1893-1942), scholar in Central Asian studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies (Institut Vostokovedeniya) of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. His book Arkhiv khivinskikh khanov XIX v. (1940) contains detailed description of 137 documents, mostly tax registers (daftars), written in Čaḡatay.

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  • IVANOW, VLADIMIR ALEKSEEVICH

    Farhad Daftary

    (1886-1970), Russian orientalist and leading pioneer in modern Ismaʿili studies. In November 1920 Ivanow went to India in the company of an Anglo-Indian force. In 1928 Ivanow went to Persia to collect manuscripts for the Asiatic Society, as he had done frequently in India, and made the first of several visits to Alamut and other Ismaʿili strongholds.

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  • IVORY

    Oscar White Muscarella

    AND ITS USE IN PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN. Prior to the 1st millennium BCE ivories are not commonly documented from excavations in Iran.

  • I~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter I entries.