Table of Contents


    E. Badian

    the unsuccessful uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Achaemenid control, 499-493 BCE. The main and almost the only source for the Revolt is Herodotus of Halicarnassus. The revolt of the Ionians and of some Aeolians joining them had clearly not been a spontaneous rising. Dislike of Persian rule does seem, at this time, to have been universal among the western subjects.

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  • IQĀʿ

    Gen'ichi Tsuge

    (pl. iqāʿāt), an Arabic term used in texts on music to denote rhythmic mode (or cycle) or rhythmic pattern.

  • IQĀN




    Annemarie Schimmel

    spiritual father of Pakistan and leading Persian and Urdu poet of India in the first half of the 20th century (1877-1938). He was well versed in the various fields of European philosophy and thought. He was equally well read in the Eastern tradition, and special mention should be made of his analysis of Persian thought in his thesis of 1907.

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  • IRAJ

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    the youngest son of Ferēdun and the eponymous hero of the Iranians in their traditional history.


    Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari

    (1874-1926), JALĀL-AL-MAMĀLEK, a major Persian poet and satirist of the early 20th century and one of the most popular poets of the late Qajar period.

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  • IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    The following sub-entries will provide an overview of the unifying factors which constitute Iran through time and across space, while also showing the complexity and heterogeneity of the components of Iranian culture.


    Xavier de Planhol

    This article intends to examine the relationship between Iranian culture and its natural environment.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times

    Ehsan Yarshater

    This section provides a concise introduction to the history of Iran from its beginnings to modern times. The generally recognized periods of the country’s history are reviewed, and some of the major motifs or themes in the politics or culture of the various periods are discussed.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 1)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Iran in the Islamic Period (651-1980s). This section of Persian history begins with the conquest by Muslim Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Persia, the gradual conversion of the Persians to the faith of the conquerors, and some 200 years of Arab rule.