Table of Contents

  • IQĀN

    cross-reference

    See KETĀB-E IQĀN.

  • IQBAL, MUHAMMAD

    Annemarie Schimmel

    spiritual father of Pakistan and leading Persian and Urdu poet of India in the first half of the 20th century (1877-1938). He was well versed in the various fields of European philosophy and thought. He was equally well read in the Eastern tradition, and special mention should be made of his analysis of Persian thought in his thesis of 1907.

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  • IRAJ

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    the youngest son of Ferēdun and the eponymous hero of the Iranians in their traditional history.

  • IRAJ MIRZĀ

    Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari

    , JALĀL-AL-MAMĀLEK, a major Persian poet and satirist of the early 20th century and one of the most popular poets of the late Qajar period (1874-1926). His intimate, idiomatic mode of expression and almost conversational tone initiated an entirely new trend in Persian poetry, which some critics have referred to as “the journalistic style.”

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  • IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    The following sub-entries will provide an overview of the unifying factors which constitute Iran through time and across space, while also showing the complexity and heterogeneity of the components of Iranian culture.

  • IRAN i. LANDS OF IRAN

    Xavier de Planhol

    This article intends to examine the relationship between Iranian culture and its natural environment.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (1) Pre-Islamic Times

    Ehsan Yarshater

    This section provides a concise introduction to the history of Iran from its beginnings to modern times. The generally recognized periods of the country’s history are reviewed, and some of the major motifs or themes in the politics or culture of the various periods are discussed.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 1)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Iran in the Islamic Period (651-1980s). This section of Persian history begins with the conquest by Muslim Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Persia, the gradual conversion of the Persians to the faith of the conquerors, and some 200 years of Arab rule.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 2)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Formation of local dynasties. The Taherids (821-73). The first of these dynasties came into being when Ṭāher b. Ḥosayn was appointed the governor of Khorasan with full power.

  • IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 3)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Saljuqids (1040-1194). The plains of Central Asia, northwestern China, and western Siberia were breeding grounds for nomadic people, who kept multiplying and searching for new pastures.