Table of Contents

  • IRANIAN STUDIES, SOCIETY FOR

    Cross-Reference

    See SOCIETY FOR IRANIAN STUDIES.

  • IRĀNŠĀH

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    term now used by the Parsis as the name of their oldest sacred fire, the Ātaš Bahrām established originally at Sanjān and now installed at Udwada, both in Gujarat.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (1)

    cross-reference

    See ĒRĀN, ĒRĀNŠAHR.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (2)

    EIr

    city, formerly Fahraj, and sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan.

  • IRĀNŠAHR (3)

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    an encyclopedic collection of articles published under the auspices of the UNESCO National Commission in Iran. The ambitious idea, as presented in the preface of the first volume, was to produce a highly reliable condensed, but comprehensive, sourcebook covering every aspect of the  civilization of Iran from ancient times to 1960.

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  • IRĀNŠAHR (4)

    Jamshid Behnam

    monthly Persian journal, published in forty-eight issues in Berlin by Ḥosayn Kāẓemzāda Irānšahr,  June 1922 to February 1927. Two principal tendencies can be distinguished in these articles:  a strong interest in ancient Persia and its language and culture, and belief in the potency of a nationalistic spirit.

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  • IRĀNŠAHR ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    the population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status for 2006 and/or 2011.

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  • IRĀNŠAHR, ḤOSAYN KĀẒEMZĀDA

    Jamshid Behnam

    (1884-1962), ardent Iranian nationalist active during the First World War, prolific author on political, religious, and educational subjects, and publisher of the journal Irānšahr 1922-27; he resided in Berlin 1917-36, in Switzerland thereafter.

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  • IRĀNŠAHRI

    Dariush Kargar and EIr

    ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author.

  • IRĀNŠĀN B. ABI’L-ḴAYR

    cross-reference

    See KUŠ-NĀMA.

  • IRANSHENASI

    Abbas Milani

    a journal of Iranian studies, began publication under the editorship of Jalāl Matini and with the help of generous Iranians who have been willing to subsidize it since the spring of 1989, when its first issue was published.

  • IRANZAMIN, TEHRAN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

    J. Richard Irvine

    (Irānzamin, Madrasa-ye Baynalmelali-e Tehrān), a combined Iranian and American international school founded in 1967.

  • IRAQ

    Multiple Authors

    the southern part of Mesopotamia, known in the early Islamic period as del-e Irānšahr (lit. “the heart of the kingdom of Iran”), served as the central province of the Sasanian empire as well as that of the ʿAbbasid caliphate.

  • IRAQ i. IN THE LATE SASANID AND EARLY ISLAMIC ERAS

    Michael Morony

    The late Sasanid era. The late Sasanid winter capital was located at the urban complex on the Tigris river called “the cities” (al-Madāʾen) by the Arabs that included Ctesiphon, Aspānpur, Veh-Antioḵ-e Ḵosrow, and Veh-Ardašir.

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  • IRAQ ii - iii. FROM THE MONGOLS TO THE SAFAVIDS

    ʿAbbās Zaryāb

    The Mongol capture of Baghdad in 1258 came at a time when Persian influence was on the rise but the city as a whole in decline.

  • IRAQ iv. RELATIONS IN THE SAFAVID PERIOD

    Rudi Matthee

    Iraq was frequently the scene and the object of the intermittent wars the Ottomans and the Safavids fought in the 16th and early 17nth century.

  • IRAQ v. AFSHARIDS TO THE END OF THE QAJARS

    Ernest Tucker

    The collapse of the Safavid dynasty in the 1720s ushered in a new round of conflict in Iraq that would continue through the first half of the 18th century.

  • IRAQ vi. PAHLAVI PERIOD, 1921-79

    Mohsen M. Milani

    Relations between Iran and Iraq underwent three different phases between 1921, when Britain installed Faysal Ibn Hossein as king of a newly formed nation-state of Iraq and 1979, when the Pahlavi dynasty was swept away by revolution.

  • IRAQ vii. IRAN-IRAQ WAR

    Saskia M. Gieling

    The war between Iran and Iraq commenced with the Iraqi invasion of Iran on 22 September 1980, and ended with the bilateral acceptance of the UN Security Council Resolution 598 on 20 July 1988.

  • IRAQ viii. THE SHIʿITE SHRINE CITIES OF IRAQ

    cross-reference

    See ʿATABĀT.