Table of Contents

  • IBEX, PERSIAN

    Eskandar Firouz, D. T. Potts

    Capra aegagrus, also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian pāzan. It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. Formerly it was numerous, found in almost all of Persia’s mountainous areas with rugged cliffs.

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  • ʿID-E FEṬR

    cross-reference

    See FASTING.

  • ʿID-E ḠADIR

    cross-reference

    See ḠADĪR ḴOMM.

  • ʿID-E MEHREGĀN

    cross-reference

    See MEHREGĀN.

  • ʿID-E NIMA-YE ŠAʿBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See Islam In Iran vii.

  • ʿID-E NOWRUZ

    cross-reference

    See NOWRUZ.

  • ʿID-E QORBĀN

    cross-reference

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

  • IDA

    Inna N. Medvedskaya

    a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the 9th century BCE.

  • IḎEH

    Kaveh Ehsani

    town and county in northeast Khuzestan Province. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by part of the Zagros range.

  • IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING

    N. Sims-Williams, D. Testen

    the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” that is, symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds. i. Terminology and conventions. ii. Ideographic writing in the Ancient Near East.

  • IGDIR

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes.  Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered.

  • IGNATIUS OF JESUS

    Paola Orsatti

    (Ignazio di Gesù, 1596-1667), an Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language, renowned mainly for his studies on religion and on the customs of the Mandaeans.

  • IHĀM

    N. Chalisova

    literally meaning “making one suppose,” a term applied to a rhetorical figure (badiʿ), a kind of play on words based on a single word with a double meaning.

  • IJEL

    John Woods

    Timurid prince (1394-1415), the fourth son of Mirānšāh b. Timur. Was named by the conqueror after one of his ancestors.

  • IJI, ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN IJI.

  • IL-ARSLĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Chorasmian king of the line of Anuštegin Ḡarčaʾi (r. 1156-72). He was the son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-Din Atsïz b. Moḥammad, , who had skillfully preserved the autonomy of Chorasmia.

  • IL-KHANIDS

    Multiple Authors

    the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan, the grandson of Čengiz Khan.

  • IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY

    REUVEN AMITAI

    The first part of this entry will be a short survey of the reigns of the various Il-khans. The second part will review some of the salient characteristics and institutions of the state they ruled.

  • IL-KHANIDS ii. Architecture

    Sheila S. Blair

    The architecture produced during the period of Il-khanid rule in Persia and Iraq is notable for its mammoth size, soaring height, sparkling color, and ingenious methods of covering space.

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  • IL-KHANIDS iii. Book Illustration

    Stefano Carboni

    The Il-khanid period (ca. 1260-ca. 1335) is no doubt the historical moment during which the art of painting, in particular in illustrated manuscripts, witnessed a dramatic increase in number, subject matter, artistic output, and patronage. The late 13th century and especially the first quarter of the 14th can be regarded as perhaps the most important formative period in the history of Persian painting, an epoch of great changes.

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  • IL-KHANIDS iv. Ceramics

    Peter Morgan

    This entry deals with glazed wares and tiles of the so-called “Sultanabad” (Solṭānābād) group, lajvardina (< Pers. lājvard “lapis lazuli”) wares, and luster wares produced in the Il-khanid period. The period extends from the fall of Baghdad in 1258 to the last dated luster tiles made in 1339.

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  • ILAK-KHANIDS

    Michal Biran

    (or Qara-khanids), the first Muslim Turkic dynasty that ruled in Central Asia from the Tarim basin to the Oxus river, from the mid-late 10th century until the beginning of the 13th.

  • ILĀM i. GEOGRAPHY - ii.

    M. Rezazadeh Shafarudi

    Until the mid-1930s Ilam was known as the Poštkuh of Lorestān as opposed to the Piškuh of Lorestān, which was located in the eastern part of the region. Since the Ṣafavid era Lorestān had been administered under the wālis (governors-general), who came from the chieftains of Lor-e Kuček tribes.

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  • ILĀM iii. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    According to the first national census of 1956, the present province (ostān) of Ilām used to be a sub-province (šahrestān) of the province of Kermānšāhān.

  • ILĀQ

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    medieval name of an area in what is now Uzbekistan, to the south of Tashkent along the middle reaches of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river.

  • ILĀQI, SAYYED ŠARAF-AL-ZAMĀN

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    follower of Avicenna and author in medicine, science, and philosophy (d. 1141).

  • ILBĀRS KHAN

    Yuri Bregel

    name of two rulers of Ḵᵛārazm in the 16th and 18th centuries: (1) Ilbārs Khan b. Buräkä (or Bürgä), from the ʿArab-šāhi (q.v.) branch of the Jochids, was the founder of the dynasty which ruled Ḵᵛārazm from 1511 to the end of the 17th century.

  • ILČI

    cross-reference

    See ELČI.

  • ILDEGOZIDS

    cross-reference

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN.

  • ILEDONG

    Mauro Maggi

    site in Central Asia of uncertain location, source of a number of Khotanese fragments.

  • ILLUMINATIONISM

    Hossein Ziai

    or Illuminationist philosophy, first introduced in the 12th century as a complete, reconstructed system distinct both from the Peripatetic philosophy  of Avicenna and from theological philosophy.

  • IMĀMIYA

    Cross-reference

    See SHIʿITE DOCTRINE; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE ii. Hierarchy in the Imamiyya.

  • IMMORTALS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. athánatoi), name of a corps of 10,000 Persian élite infantry soldiers in Herodotus, in connection with Xerxes’ campaign against Greece in 480–479 BCE.

  • IMPERIAL BANK OF PERSIA

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • INĀLU

    cross-reference

    See ḴAMSA.

  • ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl.

  • INCEST AND INBREEDING

    Geert Jan Van Gelder

    Incest and inbreeding are two different but related aspects of marriage and human reproduction.

  • INDIA

    Multiple Authors

    This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran.

  • INDIA i. Introduction

    Christopher J. Brunner

    This entry presents a series of survey articles on selected areas of interaction and mutual influence between the two culture areas, including overviews of the enormous body of literature produced in India in the Persian language.

  • INDIA ii. Historical Geography

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    The geographical borders between the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent are well defined by features, such as mountain ranges, which represent the western limits of the Indus River valley.

  • INDIA iii. RELATIONS: ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    The conquest by Darius I of the territories of the Indian subcontinent west of the Indus for the first time created a clear relationship between India and Iran.

  • INDIA iv. RELATIONS: SELEUCID, PARTHIAN, SASANIAN PERIODS

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    Seleucus I (d. 281 BCE) led an expedition to India (Matelli, 1987) ca. 305 B.C.E. It ended, however, with the cession of  territories to a new Indian king, Candragupta Maurya.

  • INDIA v. RELATIONS: MEDIEVAL PERIOD TO THE 13TH CENTURY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The first political and military footholds of the Muslims in the subcontinent proper were in Sind, and at Multan in the middle Indus valley, secured in the early 8th century.

  • INDIA vi. Political and Cultural Relations (13th-18th centuries)

    Richard M. Eaton

    Relations between peoples of the Iranian plateau and India were extensive and uninterrupted between the 13th and 18th centuries. Migration, commerce, and politics all led to a range of cross-regional influences.

  • INDIA vii. RELATIONS: THE AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Mansour Bonakdarian

     The invasion of the Persian capital (Isfahan) by Ḡilzai Afghan forces in 1722 and the collapse of Safavid central authority had a marked impact on Indo-Persian relations,

  • INDIA viii. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, THE 19TH CENTURY

    Mansour Bonakdarian

     By the time of Āqā Moḥammad Khan’s founding of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, Persia’s diplomatic relations with the Mughal empire and other territories in the Indian subcontinent were gradually passing under the supervision of British authorities in India.

  • INDIA ix. RELATIONS: QAJAR PERIOD, EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Mansour Bonakdarian

    The contributions made by various non-Iranian individuals and groups to the constitutional/ nationalist cause in Persia have long been acknowledged in the historiography of the revolution.

  • INDIA x. RELATIONS: PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian-Indian relations during the Pahlavi period will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • INDIA xi. RELATIONS: ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • INDIA xii. ISLAMIC DYNASTIES OF

    Cross-Reference

    See under individual dynasties.