Table of Contents

  • IBEX, PERSIAN

    Eskandar Firouz, D. T. Potts

    Capra aegagrus, also called Persian Wild Goat, in Persian pāzan. It is regarded as the ancestor of the domestic goat. Formerly it was numerous, found in almost all of Persia’s mountainous areas with rugged cliffs.

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  • ʿID-E FEṬR

    cross-reference

    See FASTING.

  • ʿID-E ḠADIR

    cross-reference

    See ḠADĪR ḴOMM.

  • ʿID-E MEHREGĀN

    cross-reference

    See MEHREGĀN.

  • ʿID-E NIMA-YE ŠAʿBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See Islam In Iran vii.

  • ʿID-E NOWRUZ

    cross-reference

    See NOWRUZ.

  • ʿID-E QORBĀN

    cross-reference

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

  • IDA

    Inna N. Medvedskaya

    a land and a city, part of Inner Zamua, located in the area of the southwest shore of Lake Urmia, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources dating to the 9th century BCE.

  • IḎEH

    Kaveh Ehsani

    town and county in northeast Khuzestan Province. Iḏa is located 20 km east of the Kārun River, in a small oval shaped valley, flanked by part of the Zagros range.

  • IDEOGRAPHIC WRITING

    N. Sims-Williams, D. Testen

    the representation of language by means of “ideograms,” that is, symbols representing “ideas,” rather than (or usually side by side with) symbols which represent sounds. i. Terminology and conventions. ii. Ideographic writing in the Ancient Near East.

  • IGDIR

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe in Persia and Anatolia. It was one of the 24 original Oghuz tribes.  Like other tribes that migrated to the Middle East in Saljuqid times, it has become widely scattered.

  • IGNATIUS OF JESUS

    Paola Orsatti

    (Ignazio di Gesù, 1596-1667), an Italian missionary in Persia and a scholar of the Persian language, renowned mainly for his studies on religion and on the customs of the Mandaeans.

  • IHĀM

    N. Chalisova

    literally meaning “making one suppose,” a term applied to a rhetorical figure (badiʿ), a kind of play on words based on a single word with a double meaning.

  • IJEL

    John Woods

    Timurid prince (1394-1415), the fourth son of Mirānšāh b. Timur. Was named by the conqueror after one of his ancestors.

  • IJI, ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DIN IJI.

  • IL-ARSLĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Chorasmian king of the line of Anuštegin Ḡarčaʾi (r. 1156-72). He was the son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-Din Atsïz b. Moḥammad, , who had skillfully preserved the autonomy of Chorasmia.

  • IL-KHANIDS

    Multiple Authors

    the Mongol dynasty in Persia and the surrounding countries, from about 1260 until about 1335. The dynasty was founded by Holāgu/Hülegü Khan, the grandson of Čengiz Khan.

  • IL-KHANIDS i. DYNASTIC HISTORY

    REUVEN AMITAI

    The first part of this entry will be a short survey of the reigns of the various Il-khans. The second part will review some of the salient characteristics and institutions of the state they ruled.

  • IL-KHANIDS ii. Architecture

    Sheila S. Blair

    The architecture produced during the period of Il-khanid rule in Persia and Iraq is notable for its mammoth size, soaring height, sparkling color, and ingenious methods of covering space.

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  • IL-KHANIDS iii. Book Illustration

    Stefano Carboni

    The Il-khanid period (ca. 1260-ca. 1335) is no doubt the historical moment during which the art of painting, in particular in illustrated manuscripts, witnessed a dramatic increase in number, subject matter, artistic output, and patronage. The late 13th century and especially the first quarter of the 14th can be regarded as perhaps the most important formative period in the history of Persian painting, an epoch of great changes.

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