Table of Contents

  • HIDALI

    Matthew W. Stolper

    city and region in Elam; a residence of Elamite kings in the early 7th century B.C.E., a regional administrative center thereafter.

  • HIDDEN IMAM

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM IN IRAN vii. The Concept of Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism; ESCHATOLOGY iii. Imami Shiʿism.

  • HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS

    Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

    Hill was born at Berhampore, Bengal, the youngest of five children to the missionary Rev. Samuel John Hill and Leonora Josephine, born Müller, of Danish descent. He came to England at the age of four, attended the School for Sons of Missionaries at Blackheath, and went to University College School and University College, London.

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  • HINDU

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Hendu) denotes in Persian an inhabitant of the Indian subcontinent as well as a follower of Hinduism. The stereotype of the Hindu developed into an element of lyrical imagery which had little to do with reality.

  • HINDU KUSH

    Ervin Grötzbach

    the name given to the southwest range of the massive middle and south Asiatic mountain complex lying partly in Afghanistan and partly in Pakistan.

  • HINDU PERSIAN POETS

    Stefano Pello

    From the late 16th century Hindus contributed to the development of Indo-Persian literary culture in general, and to the output of Persian verse in particular.

  • HINZ, (A.) WALTHER

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Hinz served as a counter-intelligence officer during World War II and suffered a period of internment afterwards. Due to his suspension from his teaching post by the British military government, he was forced to earn his living by another profession, partly as a translator, and, from 1950, as the political editor of a newspaper in Göttingen.

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  • HIPPOCRATES

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    or Boqrāṭ in Islamic tradition, where he is often referred to as “the first codifier of medicine” (4th-3rd cents. BCE).

  • ḤIRA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    city on the desert fringes of southwestern Mesopotamia; known in pre-Islamic times as the capital of the Lakhmid Arab dynasty, clients of the Sasanians, it survived as an urban settlement into the early centuries of the Islamic period.

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  • HISSAR, TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    This entry is concerned with the historiography of the Iranian and Persephone world from the pre-Islamic period through the 20th century in Persian and other Iranian languages. The periods and their subdivisions of this historiography are covered in 14 articles.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY i. INTRODUCTION

    Elton Daniel

    Historiography, literally, is the study not of history but of the writing of history. In modern usage, this term covers a wide range of related but distinct areas of inquiry.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    A. SH. Shahbazi

    Iranian historiography remained unaffected by the Herodotean school and developed from oral traditions and the Mesopotamian-style “quasi-history,” which embellished historical narratives.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iii. EARLY ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Elton L. Daniel

    It might be questioned whether there is, strictly speaking, any “historiography of Persia in the early Islamic period” at all, since it is by no means clear that there was an Islamic “Persia” prior to the rise of the Safavids.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iv. MONGOL PERIOD

    Charles Melville

    Persian historiography reached its maturity during the period of 13th-15th centuries, which might broadly be described as the Turko-Mongol era.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY v. TIMURID PERIOD

    Maria Szuppe

    Timurid historiography is firmly rooted within the Persian literary tradition of official court histories of the post-Mongol period.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vi. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Sholeh Quinn

    Safavid historiography, although developing unique features of its own, had its origins in the eastern Timurid tradition that was centered in Herāt.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Ernest Tucker

    Persian historical writing in the 18th century reflected the profound changes that occurred in Iran after the1722 Afghan conquest of Isfahan.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY viii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Abbas Amanat

    In the century and a half that constituted the Qajar period (1786-1925), writing of history evolved from production of annalistic court chronicles and other traditional genres into the earliest experimentations in modern historiography.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Abbas Amanat, EIr

    Historiography of this period will be treated in two separate entries: (1) General survey of historical writings; and (2) Specific topics concerning historical works.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (1)

    Abbas Amanat

    The historical studies of this period are primarily about documenting Iran’s national identity.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (2)

    EIr

    a survey of contributions in the fields of chronology, calendar systems, religious history, and cultural continuity from pre-Islamic to the Islamic period, and a survey of the ultra-nationalistic current in historical writings in the Pahlavi period.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY x. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC.

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xi. AFGHANISTAN

    Christine Noelle-Karimi

    The historiography of the day not only bears witness to the perceptions current at the time but also was subject to reinterpretation as new historical predilections arose. The available historical accounts may thus be read on several levels.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xii. CENTRAL ASIA

    Yuri Bregel

    The first Persian historical work produced in Central Asia (Transoxiana, Ḵʷārazm, Farḡāna, and Eastern Turkestan) was the 10th-century translation of the history of Ṭabari.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiii. THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    cross-reference

    See INDIA xvi.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiv. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    Sara Nur Yildiz

    Ottoman historical works composed in Persian occupy an important place in the corpus of court-oriented Ottoman historical writing of the early and classical periods.

  • HNČʿAK

    Aram Arkun

    colloquial term for members of the Social Democratic Hnčʿakean Party [SDHP], founded in Switzerland by Russian Armenians in 1887, with  branches in Persia, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire, and elsewhere.

  • ḤOBAYŠ B. EBRĀHIM B. MOḤAMMAD TEFLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    author of numerous scientific works who lived in Anatolia (d. ca. 1203-04).

  • ḤOḎEQ, JUNAYDOLLO MAḴDUM

    Keith Hitchins

    (ḤĀḎEQ, JONAYD-ALLĀH; b. mid-1780s; killed 1843), one of the leading Tajik poets of his time.

  • HODGSON, MARSHALL GOODWIN SIMMS

    Saïd Amir Arjomand

    (1922-1968), prominent scholar of Islamic civilization and professor of history and social thought at the University of Chicago.

  • HODIVALA, SHAHPURSHAH HORMASJI DINSHAHJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (d. 1944), professor of literature, history, and political economy,  best known for his works on Parsi history and on numismatics.

  • HODIVALA, SHAPURJI KAVASJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1870-1931), scholar of Avestan and Zoroastrian studies.

  • ḤODUD AL-ʿĀLAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a concise but very important Persian geography of the then known world, Islamic and non-Islamic, begun in 982-83 by an unknown author from the province of Guzgān (in northern Afghanistan).

  • HOERNLE, AUGUSTUS FREDERIC RUDOLF

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).

  • HOFFMANN, KARL

    Johanna Narten

    Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic (in India) and to Avestan and Old Persian.

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  • HOJIR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.

  • ḤOJJAT

    Maria Dakake

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams;  (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities

  • ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    Hamid Algar

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.

  • ḤOJJATIYA

    Mahmoud Sadri

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.

  • HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    Gerhard Böwering

    B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿALI AL-ḠAZNAVI AL-JOLLĀBI (d. ca. 1071-72), author of the Kašf al-maḥjub, the most celebrated early Persian Sufi treatise.

  • HOLDICH, THOMAS HUNGERFORD

    Denis Wright

    As head of the Baluchistan Survey Party from 1883, Holdich organized surveys of south Baluchistan and Makran. In 1884 he headed the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission’s survey party; in 1896 he was chief British Commissioner on the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission.

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  • ḤOLWI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN MAḤMUD

    Tahsin Yazi

    biographer of the leaders of the Ḵalwati Sufi order and minor poet (1574-1654).

  • HŌM

    cross-reference

    See HAOMA.

  • HŌM YAŠT

    W. W. Malandra

    name given to a section of the Avestan Yasna, namely, Y. 9-11.11. It is central to the ritual and is recited prior to the priestly consumption of the parahaoma (Pahl. parāhōm).

  • HOMĀM-AL-DIN

    William L. Hanaway and Leonard Lewisohn

    13th-century Persian poet, best known for his ḡazals, which follow those of Saʿdi in style and tone.

  • HŌMĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    son of Vēsa, in Iranian traditional history one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān.

  • HOMĀY ČEHRZĀD

    Jalil Doostkhah

    according to Iranian traditional history, a Kayānid queen; she was daughter, wife, and successor to the throne of Bahman, son of Esfandiār.

  • HOMĀY O HOMĀYUN

    cross-reference

    See ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI.

  • HOMĀYUN

    Jean During

    (lit. “auspicious”), an important modal system (dastgāh) in traditional Persian music.