Table of Contents

  • HERBELOT de MOLAINVILLE, BARTHÉLEMY D’

    Moti Gharib Shojania

    (1625-95), one of the first orientalists to produce a systematic survey and alphabetized account of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish literature with dictionaries for each language.

  • HERBERT, THOMAS

    R. W. Ferrier

    , Sir (1606-1682), author of the first English account of Persia, having accompanied the royal embassy from King Charles I to the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I in 1626-29.

  • HERBERT, THOMAS (2)

    John Butler

    Because of Herbert's humane care of the King, he was raised to the baronetcy by Charles II, having previously been deprived of the knighthood he had received at the hands of Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, in 1658. The last years of his life were spent as an antiquarian and businessman.

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  • HERDS and FLOCKS

    J.-P. Digard and M.-H. Papoli Yazdi

    In the Iranian world, domestic herbivores have long been raised exclusively on natural grazing, as it is still true in many places, especially among the nomadic tribes.

  • HERMAEUS

    cross-reference

    See INDO-GREEK DYNASTY.

  • HERMAS, THE SHEPHERD OF

    Werner Sundermann

    title of an early Christian paraenetic apocalypse composed in Greek by a certain Hermas, who presents himself as an emancipated slave and then a Roman businessman.

  • HERMELIN, AXEL ERIC

    Bo Utas

    (1860-1944), Swedish author and prolific translator of Persian works of literature.

  • HERMENEUTICS

    B. Todd Lawson

    of pre-modern Islamic and Shiʿite exegesis, the principles and methods, or philosophy, of scriptural interpretation, as distinct from the act of interpretation.

  • HERMES

    Albert de Jong

    Hermes was identified with the Roman god Mercury, god of commerce and trade, and came to be symbolized with the moneybag. In Egypt, he was identified with the god Thoth; he was the source of a large number of writings outlining the ways in which the soul could be released from the bonds of matter.

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  • HERMIAS

    cross-reference

    See ḴOSROW I, forthcoming online.

  • HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA

    J. Wiesehöfer

    third-century BCE Greek grammarian who wrote on “Zoroaster’s writings.”

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin, Anatol Ivanov

    The State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg, Russia, possesses some of the richest collections of Persian art.

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM i. COLLECTION OF THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin

    Among the most ancient objects of Iranian art in the Hermitage collection are 55 Elamite painted vessels of the late 4th-3rd millennium BCE.

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  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Anatol Ivanov

    Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed. It was put together only after the establishment of the Oriental Department in 1920.

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  • HERODIAN

    Philip Huyse

    (fl. shortly before 250 CE), historian, probably a native of Syria, who wrote a Greek history of the Roman emperors from the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE to the accession of Gordian III in 238.

  • HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    author of the Histories, the first monumental Greek work in prose which is still extant (5th cent. BCE).

  • HERODOTUS i. INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORIES

    Robert Rollinger

    Philologists of Hellenistic times divided Herodotus’s opus magnum into nine books and subdivided these into chapters.

  • HERODOTUS ii. THE HISTORIES AS A SOURCE FOR PERSIA AND PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    An evaluation of Herodotus’s treatment of Persia and the Persians is a difficult task. The subject is not limited to a specific logos but is ubiquitous in the Histories.

  • HERODOTUS iii. DEFINING THE PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    In the Histories the Persians are sometimes not exactly distinguishable from other peoples of their empire, especially when the Greeks’ opponents are simply qualified as “Persians.” The Persians generally are run together with the Medes.

  • HERODOTUS iv. CYRUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The historical past takes on clearer outline beginning with the figure of Cyrus the Great. With him the Persians too are introduced into world history.

  • HERODOTUS v. CAMBYSES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is first described by Herodotus at a time when his father’s reign was already about to end.

  • HERODOTUS vi. DARIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Herodotus connects the beginning of Darius’s reign with a deep break in the history of Persian royalty. He describes the rule of the Magus and palace administrator Patizeithes as an attempt at usurpation.

  • HERODOTUS vii. XERXES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The young king inherited a solid empire, which was greater than any before in history. The subsequent great war of the years 480 and 479 Herodotus describes as an immense struggle, to which he devotes a third of his work.

  • HERODOTUS viii. MARDONIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    After Xerxes’ retreat, Mardonius prepared his offensive on land. He also wanted the higher powers to be on his side.

  • HERODOTUS ix. TIGRANES AND THE BATTLE OF MYCALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After Salamis, the escaped Persian fleet for a while ceased playing any further part. During the winter it was anchored in part at Cyme, and in part before Samos.

  • HERODOTUS x. ARTAYCTES AND THE FINALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After the battle of Mycale, the Greeks advanced as far as the Hellespont, where they found that Xerxes’ bridge was already destroyed.

  • HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Robert Rollinger

    This article constitutes a selected biography of Herodotus.

  • HERON

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪTĪMĀR.

  • HERON-ALLEN, EDWARD

    Joan Navarre

    Although Heron-Allen did not have a full formal education, his intellectual curiosity and passion for learning never waned, as illustrated by the long list of hobbies and interests in his entry in Who’s Who: “Persian literature; Marine Zoology; Meteorology; Heraldry; Bibliography; Occasional Essays and Scientific Romances; Auricula and Asparagus Culture.”

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  • HERTEL, JOHANNES

    Almut Hintze

    Hertel’s lasting contributions to scholarship are his earlier works on Sanskrit narrative literature and its transmission. They culminated in the publication of a four-volume edition of the Pañcatantra in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 11-14 (1908-15). After his appointment to the Indology chair in Leipzig, he turned to Vedic studies and, from 1924, to Avestan.

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  • HERZEGOVINA

    cross-reference

    See BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST

    Multiple Authors

    Herzfeld is known as an archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in ancient Near Eastern and Iranian studies during the first half of the 20th century. To him we owe many decisive contributions to Islamic, Sasanian, and Prehistoric archeology and history of Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He was the first professor for Near Eastern archeology in the world.

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  • HERZFELD, ERNST i. LIFE AND WORK

    Stefan R. Hauser

    (1879-1948). In retrospect, Herzfeld was one of the last examples of the all-encompassing, erudite learning of the 19th century humanistic cultural tradition. Herzfeld combined a wide array of talents and interests. 

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  • HERZFELD, ERNST ii. HERZFELD AND PASARGADAE

    David Stronach

    Ernst Herzfeld probably devoted more attention to the study of Achaemenid Iran than to any other single topic. His name will always be associated with Pasargadae, the dynastic seat of Cyrus II (the Great), the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iii. HERZFELD AND PERSEPOLIS

    Hubertus von Gall

    Herzfeld first visited Persepolis in November 1905 during his return from the Assur excavation. He returned to Persepolis during his expedition to Persia, Iraq, and Afghanistan, which lasted from February 1923 to October 1925.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iv. HERZFELD AND THE PAIKULI INSCRIPTION

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The monument at Paikuli (Pāikūlī) lies on the Iraqi side of the border with Iran on a north-south line drawn from Solaimānīya in Iraq to Qaṣr-e Šīrīn in Persia on the ancient road from Ctesiphon to Azerbaijan.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST v. HERZFELD AND THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT IRAN

    Josef Wiesehöfer

    Herzfeld’s classical education, giving him familiarity with Greek and Latin literature, and his training in Oriental philology as well as in archeology and architectural techniques proved of great benefit in his study of pre-Islamic Iranian history and culture.

  • ḤESĀBI, MAḤMUD

    Hessamaddin Arfaei and Fariborz Majidi

    Mahmud Hesabi worked as an electrical engineer in the Paris railway system. In the meantime, he continued his studies in physics at Paris University, Sorbonne under the noted physicist Aimé Cotton and obtained his doctorate in 1927. His dissertation was on Sensibilité des cellules photoélectriques.

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  • ḤESĀR (1)

    Yuri Bregel

    region in the eastern part of Transoxania, in the upper course of the Sorḵān Daryā (medieval Čaḡānrud) and the Kāfernehān.

  • ḤEṢĀR (2)

    Jean During

    in Persian music, an important section (šāh-guša) in the Persian and Azeri radifs, its name probably originating from the town in Tajikistan.

  • ḤEṢĀR, TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

  • ḤESBA

    cross-reference

    See MOḤTASEB.

  • HESIOD

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hēsíodos), Greek epic poet (fl. ca. 700 BCE). By mentioning for the first time the Scythians, Hesiod belongs to the Greek authorities for Iranian matters.

  • HESYCHIUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hēsýchios), Greek lexicographer from Alexandria, whose lexicon records a number of Iranian words (6th or possibly 5th century CE).

  • HIDALI

    Matthew W. Stolper

    city and region in Elam; a residence of Elamite kings in the early 7th century B.C.E., a regional administrative center thereafter.

  • HIDDEN IMAM

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM IN IRAN vii. The Concept of Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism.

  • HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS

    Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

    Hill was born at Berhampore, Bengal, the youngest of five children to the missionary Rev. Samuel John Hill and Leonora Josephine, born Müller, of Danish descent. He came to England at the age of four, attended the School for Sons of Missionaries at Blackheath, and went to University College School and University College, London.

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  • HINDU

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Hendu) denotes in Persian an inhabitant of the Indian subcontinent as well as a follower of Hinduism. The stereotype of the Hindu developed into an element of lyrical imagery which had little to do with reality.

  • HINDU KUSH

    Ervin Grötzbach

    the name given to the southwest range of the massive middle and south Asiatic mountain complex lying partly in Afghanistan and partly in Pakistan.

  • HINDU PERSIAN POETS

    Stefano Pello

    From the late 16th century Hindus contributed to the development of Indo-Persian literary culture in general, and to the output of Persian verse in particular.