Table of Contents

  • ḤAYDAR ʿALI EṢFAHĀNI, Ḥājji Mirzā

    Moojan Momen

    (b. Isfahan, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920), Bahāʾi polemicist.

  • ḤAYDAR KHAN ʿAMU-OḠLI

    Alireza Sheikholeslami

    (1880-1921), revolutionary activist who used terror to radicalize Persian politics in the early 20th century. Forced to leave Persia in 1911, he was sent back by the Bolsheviks to settle the conflict between the Jangalis and the Communist Party of Persia in Gilān. It is almost certain that he was killed by a group of Jangalis soon afterwards.

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  • ḤAYDAR MIRZĀ ṢAFAVI

    Michel M. Mazzaoui

    Safavid prince who considered himself to be the chosen successor of his father, Shah Ṭahmāsb, but was killed immediately after the latter’s death on 14 May 1576.

  • ḤAYDAR, Mir

    Cross-Reference

    See MANGHITS.

  • ḤAYDARI and NEʿMATI

    John R. Perry

    (also Amir-Ḥaydari; Neʿmat-Allāhi), mutually hostile urban moieties of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran.

  • HĀYEDA

    Erik Nakjavani

    the stage name of MAʿṢUMA DADEBĀLĀ (b. Tehran, 1942; d. San Jose, Calif., 1990), popular Persian singer. Hāyeda primarily distinguished herself by a naturally rich, operatic alto voice. For nearly two decades, she performed the āvāz and interpreted popular traditional and contemporary songs, all based on the modal system of traditional Persian music.

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  • ḤAYRAT, MOḤAMMAD ṢEDDIQ

    Habib Borjian

    (1878-1902) Tajik poet from Bukhar, literary scholars praise him as one of the best Persian poets of the late 19th century

  • ḤAYYA ʿALĀ ḴAYR AL-ʿAMAL

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    a religious formula, meaning “Come to the best of actions,” included in the call to prayer (aḏān) by all three major branches of Shiʿism, Twelvers, Zaydis and Ismaʿilis.

  • HAŽĀR

    Keith Hitchins

    pen name of ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠARAFKANDI (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form, because he passionately believed in the social mission of art and wanted his works to be read and understood by all.

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  • HAZĀR AFSĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Arabic title of The Arabian Nights, the world-famous collection of tales. See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀR O YAK ŠAB

    cross-reference

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀRA

    Arash Khazeni, Alessandro Monsutti, Charles M. Kieffer

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Arash Khazeni

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Kuh-e Bābā mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. Its boundaries have historically been inexact and shifting, and in some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

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  • HAZĀRA ii. HISTORY

    Alessandro Monsutti

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

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  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    Alessandro Monsutti

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.

  • HAZĀRA iv. Hazāragi dialect

    Charles M. Kieffer

    The number of hazāragi speakers is approximately 1.8 million. The Afghan hazāragi varieties of Persian are essentially very close to modern tājiki, or rather of modern dari Persian, or even kāboli Persian, but their typology still has to be fully defined.

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  • HAZĀRASPIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods.

  • HAZĀRBED

    M. Rahim Shayegan

    or Hazāruft; title of a high state official in Sasanian Iran.

  • HAZĀRSOTUN

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    the palace-complex of Moḥammad b. Toḡloq (1325-1551) at Jahānpanāh (Delhi).

  • HAZELNUT

    H. Aʿlam

    (fandoq), the hard-shelled fruit of the shrub (or small tree) Corylus avellana L. (fam. Corylaceae), containing an edible kernel of high nutritious value.

  • ḤAZIN

    Jean During

    in Persian music, a small guša (melodic type) of the Persian classical model repertoire radif.

  • ḤAZIN LĀHIJI

    John R. Perry

    Persian poet and scholar (1692-1766), emblematic of the cultivated Shiʿite mirzā of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran who fled a politically dangerous and economically depressed milieu for the courts of Muslim India.

  • HAŽIR, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (1895-1949), Minister, Prime Minister, Court Minister. Hažir’s assassination was primarily a result of the religio-political sentiments mobilized against him. Such sentiments were accentuated by his high-profile royalism, his identification with the least popular policies and conduct of the court and the government, particularly the rigging of elections, and his image as a close ally of the British.

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  • HAZL

    cross-reference

    See HUMOR.

  • HEAD GEAR

    cross-reference

    See CLOTHING.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Medieval period. iii. Qajar period. iv. Pahlavi period.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Philippe Gignoux

    Health and medicine are clearly defined in Pahlavi literature in the philosophical and moral tradition already taught by the fifth-century BCE Greek “father of medicine,” Hippocrates.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA ii. MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Amir Arsalan Afkhami

    Under the Qajars a centralized public health policy was introduced for the first time in Persia.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iv. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HEAVEN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀSMĀN; ESCHATOLOGY.

  • HECATAEUS OF MILETUS

    Joseph Wiesehöfer

    a Greek author from the city of Miletus in Asia Minor (fl. between 560 and 418 BCE), author of a geographical survey of the regions and the peoples in the Achaemenid empire.

  • HECATOMPYLUS

    cross-reference

    See ŠAHR-E QUMIS.

  • HEDĀYAT AL-MOTAʿALLEMIN FI’L-ṬEBB

    Jalal Matini

    the complete title of the oldest extant treatise on medicine written in Persia, which is also commonly referred to simply as Ketāb-e Hedāyat.

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA

    Manouchehr Kasheff, Amemeh Yousefzadeh

    , MEHDIQOLI, statesman, author, and musicologist (1864-1955).

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA i. LIFE AND WORK

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    , MEHDIQOLI, statesman, author, and musicologist (1864-1955). Highlights of his political career include a role in the Constitutional Revolution, tenures as governor-general of Fārs and of Azerbaijan during the critical years of World War I and its aftermath, and premiership in the early Pahlavi era.

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  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA ii. AS MUSICIAN

    Amemeh Yousefzadeh

    Apart from a book about musical theory, the Majmaʿ al-adwār (Tehran, 1938), we owe him one of the earliest complete notations of the repertoire of Persian music (radifs).

  • HEDĀYAT, REŻĀQOLI KHAN

    Paul E. Losensky

    Persian literary historian, administrator, and poet of the Qajar period (1800-1871).

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ

    Multiple Authors

    (Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (1903-1951), who had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ i. LIFE AND WORK

    Homa Katouzian and EIr

    Sadeq Hedayat was the youngest child of Hedā-yatqoli Khan Eʿteżād-al-Molk, the notable literary historian, the dean of the Military Academy.

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  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ ii. THEMES, PLOTS, AND TECHNIQUE IN HEDAYAT’S FICTION

    Michael Graig Hillmann

    Most of the short stories that Sadeq Hedayat wrote between the late 1920s and the mid-1930s are generally culture-specific, full of local color, and depict some aspects of Iranian life.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iii. HEDĀYAT AND FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Ulrich Marzolph

    Hedayat is acknowledged as a major contributor in twentieth-century Iran to the growing awareness devoted to the collection and study of various aspects of everyday culture, particularly verbal art. 

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iv. TRANSLATIONS OF PAHLAVI TEXTS

    Touraj Daryaee

    Sadeq Hedayat traveled to India in 1936 and stayed for less than two years. In Bombay he began studying Middle Persian and some Pāzand with the Parsi scholar B. T.  Anklesaria.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ v. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EIr

    This article contains a selected biography of the works of Sadeq Hedayat.

  • HEDGEHOG

    Steven C. Anderson

    (ḵār-pošt, juja-tiḡi, čula), member of the Erinaceinae sub-family of the Erinaceidae family of insectivores; animals the size of a small rabbit. The various species of hedgehogs are found in deciduous woodlands, cultivated fields, and desert regions. They are primarily nocturnal. Hedgehogs are omnivorous, but they prefer animal food.

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  • HEDIN, SVEN

    Håkan Wahlquist

    Swedish explorer of, and prolific writer on, Central Asia and Persia (1865-1952).

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  • ḤEFẒ AL-ṢEḤḤA

    Nasseredin Parvin

    the first Iranian medical journal, published as a  monthly during 1906.

  • HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH

    M. Azadpour

    German idealist philosopher (1770-1831). Hegel based his discussion of pre-Islamic Persia on two main sources: 1. ancient Greek sources on Persia, such as Herodotus; 2. A. H. Anquetil-Duperron’s pioneering work, Le Zend-Avesta (1771).

  • ḤEJĀB

    cross-reference

    See ČĀDOR (2).

  • ḤEJĀZ

    Jean During

    in Persian music, an important modal type (šāh-guša) of the Persian radif.