Table of Contents

  • ḤALABI, MAḤMUD

    Mahmoud Sadri

    , Shaikh (1900-1998), charismatic cleric and founder of the Ḥojjatiya Association (Anjoman-e Ḥojjatiya), whose primary objective was to meet the polemical challenge of the Bahai faith and the perceived danger of its aggressive missionary activity in Persia. It was terminated after the Islamic revolution of 1979

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  • ḤALĀL O ḤARĀM

    Dana al-Sajdi

    a pair of Islamic legal terms: ḥalāl meaning permissible, and ḥarām meaning prohibited. Both terms occur in the Koran numerous times.

  • ḤĀLAT, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Hušang Etteḥād

    Ḥālat is considered by some observers to be the greatest contemporary Persian satirical poet. His enormous success and mastery of satirical prose and, especially, poetry have sometimes earned him the titles of Malek-al-šoʿarāʾ, Sayyed-al-šoʿarāʾ, and Amir-al-šoʿarā.

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  • ḤĀLI, ALṬĀF ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HALICARNASSUS

    Bruno Genito

    ancient town of Caria, near the present-day city of Bodrum in Turkey, once seat of a kingdom which was a tributary of Persia.

  • HALIL RUD

    M. H. Ganji

    river in the Jiroft and Kahnuj districts of Kerman Province in southeastern Iran, which stretches a total length of 390 km.

  • ḤALIM

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional Persian breakfast dish for the winter, now served at lunch and dinner as well, made with lamb and wheat.

  • ḤALIMI, LOṬF-ALLĀH

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Abi Yusof, an Ottoman poet and lexicographer of Persian origin (d. 1516).

  • ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi (857-922), popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-point in the history of Islamic mysticism.

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  • HALLOCK, RICHARD TREADWELL

    Charles E. Jones and Matthew W. Stolper

    (1906-1980), Elamitologist and Assyriologist, whose magnum opus, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, transformed the study of the languages and history of Achaemenid Persia.

  • ḤALWĀ

    Etrat Elahi

    (Ar. ḥalwāʾ, Pers. ḥalwā “sweetmeat”), a generic term applied to various kinds of sweet dishes and fruits.

  • HĄM.VAINTĪ

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Zoroastrian divinity “Victory,” only attested as a companion with Āxšti “Peace.”

  • HAMADĀN

    Multiple Authors

    province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.

  • HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr

    Hamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59′ and 35°48′ N and longitudes 47°34′ and 49°36′ E. The city of Hamadān is located at an altitude of 1,645 m on the eastern slope of the Alvand massif. In the National Physical Plan (Ṭarḥ-e kālbodi-e melli), which divides the country into 10 regions, the province is identified as a part of the central Zagros sub-region.

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  • HAMADĀN ii. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    A part of the population of Hamadān consists of migrating tribes. According to the census definition most parts of these tribes are considered as rural population and only a small part as non-sedentary. Nevertheless, census data provide some information concerning their number, tribal name and other social characteristics.

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  • HAMADĀN iii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The city of Hamadān lies at the extreme northwest of the series of major urban sites stretching along the line of contact between the Zagros range and the central plateau.

  • HAMADĀN iv. URBAN PLAN

    Abdolhamid Eshragh

    Hamadān is the only city in Persia which has a star-shaped urban design, with six boulevards and a network of avenues autonomously branching out in various directions from the circular city center. In 1928, German architects were given the task of designing a plan for the city which would modernize its urban infrastructure and be suitable for motor traffic. The resultant project was eventually implemented in 1933.

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  • HAMADĀN v - vi. HISTORY, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi

    Hamadān did not give up resisting Arab rule even after the decisive defeat at Vājrud. Once Noʿaym left for the conquest of Ray and Khorasan following his victory at Vājrud, Moḡira b. Šoʿba, who had replaced ʿAmmār b. Yāser as governor of Kufa, sent Jarir b. ʿAbd-Allāh Bajali to Hamadān.

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  • HAMADĀN vii. MONUMENTS

    Ali Mousavi and EIr

    The city of Hamadān, besides its pre-Islamic remains, comprises some important monuments belonging to the Islamic period. The most significant of these is the mausoleum called Gonbad-e ʿAlawiān. It is a square, relatively massive monument, almost entirely of baked brick. Its façade was once covered with opulent stucco decoration.

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  • HAMADĀN viii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Houman Sarshar

    The relative religious freedom that existed in Persia at Yudḡān’s time had widespread effects on the Jewish communities throughout the land, but in Hamadān in particular. It was during this same period that religious authorities of the two Talmudic schools in Iraq were able to better influence the Jewish communities of Persia, opening yeshivas in Hamadān.

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