Table of Contents

  • HORN, PAUL

    Erich Kettenhofen

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

  • HOROSCOPE

    David Pingree

    the horoscopic diagram or theme which depicts the positions of the planets in the zodiacal signs and of the zodiacal signs relative to the local horizon at a given time. 

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    Meir M. Bar Asher

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    Jean Calmard

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

  • HORSE

    cross-reference

    See ASB.

  • HORSE RACING

    Azartash Azarnoush

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    Mohammad Estelami

    , ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork (d. 1284), leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.