Table of Contents

  • HODGSON, MARSHALL GOODWIN SIMMS

    Saïd Amir Arjomand

    (1922-1968), prominent scholar of Islamic civilization and professor of history and social thought at the University of Chicago.

  • HODIVALA, SHAHPURSHAH HORMASJI DINSHAHJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (d. 1944), professor of literature, history, and political economy,  best known for his works on Parsi history and on numismatics.

  • HODIVALA, SHAPURJI KAVASJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1870-1931), scholar of Avestan and Zoroastrian studies.

  • ḤODUD AL-ʿĀLAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a concise but very important Persian geography of the then known world, Islamic and non-Islamic, begun in 982-83 by an unknown author from the province of Guzgān (in northern Afghanistan).

  • HOERNLE, AUGUSTUS FREDERIC RUDOLF

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).

  • HOFFMANN, KARL

    Johanna Narten

    Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic (in India) and to Avestan and Old Persian.

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  • HOJIR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.

  • ḤOJJAT

    Maria Dakake

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams;  (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities

  • ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    Hamid Algar

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.

  • ḤOJJATIYA

    Mahmoud Sadri

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.