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philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).
Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic, transmitted in India, and to Avestan and Old Persian on the Iranian side.This Article Has Images/Tables.
A. Shapur Shahbazi
in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.
(“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams; (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities
(lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.
a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.
B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿALI AL-ḠAZNAVI AL-JOLLĀBI (d. ca. 1071-72), author of the Kašf al-maḥjub, the most celebrated early Persian Sufi treatise.
As head of the Baluchistan Survey Party from 1883, Holdich organized surveys of south Baluchistan and Makran as far as Jask and Bandar ʿAbbās. In 1884 he headed the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission’s survey party; in 1896 he was the chief British Commissioner on the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission.This Article Has Images/Tables.
biographer of the leaders of the Ḵalwati Sufi order and minor poet (1574-1654).