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the first Persian-language newspaper to be published in an Arab country, published in Cairo, 1892-1911.
, ʿĀREF, Ottoman šayḵ-al-eslām (supreme authority in religious matters) 1845-54, poet in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian.
EIr, with an initial contribution by Abbas Milani
man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school.This Article Has Images/Tables.
politician and powerful speaker of the House of Representatives (Majles; 1891-1978).This Article Has Images/Tables.
educator and philanthropist (1917-1997). Founder, owner and principal of Hekmat International School (1950-79) in Tehran.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Mawlānā Badr-al-Din (Nur-al-Din) accomplished Persian poet of Turkish origin (1470-1529).
the last Greek king to reign in Bactria (ca. 145-130 BCE), known only through his monolingual coins.
This entry will treat the concept of hell in the Iranian culture under two rubrics.
Hell is not explicitly mentioned in the Gathas. There are only allusions, where it is said that the soul and the daēnā of the wicked will be guests in the “house of falsehood.”
Duzaḵ and jahannam are the terms commonly used in Persian for hell.