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in Persian music, an important modal type (šāh-guša) of the Persian radif.
novelist, short-story writer, playwright, essayist, translator, government official, and member of the Senate (1901-1974)—one of a small group of Persians with Western-style education in the early twentieth century who displayed a sense of responsibility and mission to change and modernize Persia and to introduce Western ideas and modes of behavior.This Article Has Images/Tables.
a bridal chamber (ḥejla-ye ʿarusi), generally in the shape of a curtained canopy, built by a ḥejla-sāz.
the first Persian-language newspaper to be published in an Arab country, published in Cairo, 1892-1911.
, ʿĀREF, Ottoman šayḵ-al-eslām (supreme authority in religious matters) 1845-54, poet in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian.
EIr, with an initial contribution by Abbas Milani
man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Hekmat was a staunch critic of the infamous 1919 agreement between Persia and Britain and joined forces with the anti-British Tangestāni movement. Because of these activities, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the powerful governor of Fārs, confiscated Ḥekmat’s properties.This Article Has Images/Tables.
In Hekmat's capacity as the honorary treasurer of the High Council of Women’s Organization of Iran (Šurā-ye ʿali-e sāzmān-e zanān-e Irān), she represented Iran in various international conferences on the status of women and was instrumental in organizing ten daycare centers and orphanages throughout the country.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Mawlānā Badr-al-Din (Nur-al-Din) accomplished Persian poet of Turkish origin (1470-1529).
the last Greek king to reign in Bactria (ca. 145-130 BCE), known only through his monolingual coins. His power, in contrast to that of his Greco-Bactrian predecessors, was limited to the south and southwest territories of Bactria.This Article Has Images/Tables.