Table of Contents

  • ḤALABI, ABU'L-ṢĀLEḤ

    Etan Kohlberg

    Taqi-al-Din b. Najm-al-Din b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad (b. 984-85, d. 1055), Imami jurist and theologian.

  • ḤALABI, MAḤMUD

    Mahmoud Sadri

    (1900-1998), Shaikh, charismatic cleric and founder of the Ḥojjatiya Association whose primary objective was to meet the polemical challenge of the Bahai faith and the perceived danger of its aggressive missionary activity in Persia.

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  • ḤALĀL O ḤARĀM

    Dana al-Sajdi

    a pair of Islamic legal terms: ḥalāl meaning permissible, and ḥarām meaning prohibited. Both terms occur in the Koran numerous times.

  • ḤĀLAT, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Hušang Etteḥād

    Ḥālat is considered by some observers to be the greatest contemporary Persian satirical poet. His enormous success and mastery of satirical prose and, especially, poetry have sometimes earned him the titles of Malek-al-šoʿarāʾ, Sayyed-al-šoʿarāʾ, and Amir-al-šoʿarā.

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  • ḤĀLI, ALṬĀF ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HALICARNASSUS

    Bruno Genito

    ancient town of Caria, near the present-day city of Bodrum in Turkey, once seat of a kingdom which was a tributary of Persia.

  • HALIL RUD

    M. H. Ganji

    river in the Jiroft and Kahnuj districts of Kerman Province in southeastern Iran, which stretches a total length of 390 km.

  • ḤALIM

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional Persian breakfast dish for the winter, now served at lunch and dinner as well, made with lamb and wheat.

  • ḤALIMI, LOṬF-ALLĀH

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Abi Yusof, an Ottoman poet and lexicographer of Persian origin (d. 1516).

  • ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi (857-922), popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-point in the history of Islamic mysticism.

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  • HALLOCK, RICHARD TREADWELL

    Charles E. Jones and Matthew W. Stolper

    (1906-1980), Elamitologist and Assyriologist, whose magnum opus, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, transformed the study of the languages and history of Achaemenid Persia.

  • ḤALWĀ

    Etrat Elahi

    (Ar. ḥalwāʾ, Pers. ḥalwā “sweetmeat”), a generic term applied to various kinds of sweet dishes and fruits.

  • HĄM.VAINTĪ

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Zoroastrian divinity “Victory,” only attested as a companion with Āxšti “Peace.”

  • HAMADĀN

    Multiple Authors

    province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.

  • HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr

    Hamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59′ and 35°48′ N and longitudes 47°34′ and 49°36′ E. The city of Hamadān is located at an altitude of 1,645 m on the eastern slope of the Alvand massif. In the National Physical Plan (Ṭarḥ-e kālbodi-e melli), which divides the country into 10 regions, the province is identified as a part of the central Zagros sub-region.

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  • HAMADĀN ii. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    A part of the population of Hamadān consists of migrating tribes. According to the census definition most parts of these tribes are considered as rural population and only a small part as non-sedentary. Nevertheless, census data provide some information concerning their number, tribal name and other social characteristics.

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  • HAMADĀN iii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The city of Hamadān lies at the extreme northwest of the series of major urban sites stretching along the line of contact between the Zagros range and the central plateau.

  • HAMADĀN iv. URBAN PLAN

    Abdolhamid Eshragh

    Hamadān is the only city in Persia which has a star-shaped urban design, with six boulevards and a network of avenues autonomously branching out in various directions from the circular city center. 

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  • HAMADĀN v - vi. HISTORY, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi

    At the end of 23/643, Jarir conquered Hamadān and its surroundings again by force, and made peace with the populace on terms similar to those of the Nehāvand settlement.

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  • HAMADĀN vii. MONUMENTS

    Ali Mousavi and EIr

    The city of Hamadān, besides its pre-Islamic remains, contains some important Islamic monuments. The most significant is the mausoleum called Gonbad-e ʿAlawiān, square and massive, almost entirely of baked brick. Its façade was once covered with opulent stucco decoration.

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  • HAMADĀN viii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Houman Sarshar

    The relative religious freedom that existed in Persia at Yudḡān’s time had widespread effects on the Jewish communities,  in Hamadān in particular. Religious authorities of the two Talmudic schools in Iraq were able to better influence the Jewish communities of Persia, opening yeshivas in Hamadān.

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  • HAMADĀN ix. JEWISH DIALECT

    Donald Stilo

    According to Ehsan Yarshater’s informants, the Jewish community had dwindled from around 13,000 souls in 1920 to less than 1,000 by 1969, and of these about half originated from the Jewish communities of Malāyer, Tuyserkān, and various points in Kurdistan. 

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  • HAMADĀNI, ABU YAʿQUB YUSOF

    cross-reference

    See ABU YAʿQUB HAMADĀNI.

  • HAMADĀNI, BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN

    cross-reference

    See BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN HAMADĀNI.

  • HAMADĀNI, SAYYED ʿALI

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi

    b. Sayyed Šehāb-al-Din (1314-1384), Sufi author and preacher who undertook a celebrated mission to convert the people of Kashmir to Islam.

  • HAMADĀNIĀN FACTORIES AND ENDOWMENTS

    Habib Borjian

    Established by ʿAli Hamadāniān (1907-63) and his brother Ḥosayn (1909-78), entrepreneurs and industrialists based in Isfahan, these include textile, cement, and sugar factories.

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  • HAMAN

    Shaul Shaked

    the chief courtier of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes), according to the story of the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He is portrayed as the villain of the narrative.

  • HAMĀRAKARA

    Muhammad A.Dandamayev

    (*hmāra-kara-, lit. “account-maker”), “bookkeeper,” an Old Iranian title attested in various sources of Achaemenid and later times.

  • HAMASPATHMAĒDAYA

    cross-reference

    See GĀHANBĀR; FRAWARDIGĀN.

  • ḤAMĀVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    (from MOḤAMMADVAND), a Kurdish tribe of northeastern Iraq which has been described as “the most celebrated fighting tribe of southern Kurdistan.”

  • ḤAMAYD

    Pierre Oberling

    an Arab tribe of Ḵuzestān. In the early 1900s, it dwelled mostly in the boluk of Ḥamayd, on the left bank of the Kārun river.

  • HAMĀZŌR

    Mary Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    a Zoroastrian Persian adjective “of the same strength” which occurs only in a formula of greeting, in ritual uses accompanied by the giving of hands.

  • ḤAMD-ALLĀH MOSTAWFI

    Charles Melville

    historian and geographer of the Il-khanid period (1281-1344), author of Tāriḵ-e gozida, Ẓafar-nāma, and Nozhat al-qolub.

  • ḤAMDĀN QARMAṬ

    Wilferd Madelung

    b. al-Ašʿaṯ (d. 933), Ismaʿili dāʿi and founder of the Ismaʿili movement in Iraq.

  • HAMDARD ISLAMICUS

    Ansar Zahid Khan

    English-language quarterly for Islamic Studies, founded in Pakistan in 1978. Published by the Hamdard Foundation of Pakistan.

  • ḤĀMED BAL-ḴEŻR AL-ḴOJANDI

    David Pingree

    ABU MAḤMUD, mathematician and astronomer of the 10th century. His nesba suggests that he originated from Ḵojand in Ferḡāna.

  • ḤĀMEDI EṢFAHĀNI

    Tahsin Yazici

    (or Ḥāmedi ʿAjam), a poet of Persian origin (1439-ca. 1485) at the court of the Ottoman Sultan Moḥammad Fāteḥ (Mehmed the Conquerer).

  • HAMĒSTAGĀN

    Philippe Gignoux

    a word of uncertain etymology, used in Pahlavi literature to designate the intermediate stage between paradise and hell.

  • HAMGAR, MAJD-AL-DIN

    Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    (1210-1287), MAJD-AL-DIN B. AḤMAD, known also as Ebn-e Hamgar (hamgar means “weaver”), an important poet of the 13th century.

  • ḤAMID QALANDAR

    Khaliq Ahmad Nizami

    (d. 1366), author of Ḵayr al-majāles, the obiter dicta (malfuẓāt) of the Češti shaikh Naṣir-al-Din Maḥmud Čerāḡ-e Dehli, Ḥamid’s father,

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN ABU BAKR BALḴI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN KERMĀNI

    Farhad Daftary

    (d. after 1020-21), ABU’L-ḤASAN AḤMAD b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad, a prominent Ismaʿili dāʿi and one of the most accomplished Ismaʿili theologians and philosophers of the Fatimid period.

  • ḤAMIDI ŠIRĀZI

    Jafar Moayyad Shirazi

    Ḥamidi left Shiraz for Tehran in 1934 and enrolled in the Teachers College of Tehran University, where he received a B.A. degree in Persian Literature in 1937, graduating at the top of his class. He returned to Shiraz as a high school teacher, and a year later he published his first collection of poems, Šoku-fahā “Blossoms.”

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  • HAMKALĀM

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    “of the same word, ” a Zoroastrian-Persian priestly technical term.

  • ḤAMMĀM-E WAKĪL

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    (bathhouse of the Wakil), a historic monument in Shiraz built by Karim Khan Zand “the Wakil” (r. 1751-79) after 1776.

  • HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH FREIHERR von

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (1774-1856), prolific Austrian orientalist, among whose many works is the first ever complete translation of the Divān of Ḥāfeẓ into a Western language.

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE

    Eckart Ehlers, Gherardo Gnoli

    (or simply Hāmun), lit. “lake of the plain, lowland,” a lake covering the deepest part of the Sistān depression and the Sistān watershed.

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE i. GEOGRAPHY

    Eckart Ehlers

    The Sistān basin is the easternmost endorheic basin in Persia, draining a watershed 350,000 km2.

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE ii. IN LITERATURE AND MYTHOLOGY

    Gherardo Gnoli

    In the literature and mythology of ancient Persia, Lake Hāmun occupied, along with the Helmand Riiver, a position of particular importance, especially in Zoroastrian eschatology.

  • ḤAMZA B. ĀḎARAK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Atrak or ʿAbd-Allāh Abu Ḵozayma (d. 828), Kharijite rebel in Sistān and Khorasan during early ʿAbbasid times.