Table of Contents

  • HADITH i. A General Introduction

    Shahab Ahmed

    Hadith literature is understood to be the repository of the sonna (normative conduct) of the Prophet, which is regarded as second in authority only to the Koran as a source of Divine truth.

  • HADITH ii. IN SHIʿISM

    A. Kazemi-Moussavi

    The Twelver Shiʿite conception of Hadith is generally in line with that of the Sunnites as discussed in Section i. However, Hadith about the Imams are authoritative as well.

  • HADITH iii. IN ISMAʿILISM

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    Ismaʿilis had neither a Hadith collection of their own nor a distinct Ismaʿili law before the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa in 297/909.

  • HADITH iv. IN SUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    In keeping with all other categories of Islamic literature, the writings of the Sufis are replete with not only Koranic citations but also quotations of Hadith.

  • HADITH v. AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES

    Shaul Shaked

    The contact of Arabia with ancient Iran started even before Islam, and there are definite traces of the presence of Iranian religious notions in the Koran.

  • HĀDŌXT NASK

    Jean Kellens

    (Book of scriptures), the sixth of the seven Gaθic (Gāsānīg) nasks of the Sasanian Avesta, according to the Dēnkard (8.45.1).

  • HADRIAN

    Ernst Badian

    (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor 117-38. He abandoned the Parthian War and the provinces east of the Euphrates that had been instituted by Trajan but never securely held.

  • ḤĀʾERI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM YAZDI

    Hamid Algar

    , Shaikh (1859-1937), an influential “source of emulation” (marjaʿ-e taqlid) as well as founder of the institution of religious teaching and guidance (Ḥawza-ye ʿelmiya) in Qom. His literary legacy was relatively meager, the result of his preoccupation with administering the Ḥawza and teaching.

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  • HAFEZ

    Multiple Authors

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.