Table of Contents

  • HADITH i. A General Introduction

    Shahab Ahmed

    Hadith literature is understood to be the repository of the sonna (normative conduct) of the Prophet, which is regarded as second in authority only to the Koran as a source of Divine truth.

  • HADITH ii. IN SHIʿISM

    A. Kazemi-Moussavi

    The Twelver Shiʿite conception of Hadith is generally in line with that of the Sunnites as discussed in Section i. However, Hadith about the Imams are authoritative as well.

  • HADITH iii. IN ISMAʿILISM

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    Ismaʿilis had neither a Hadith collection of their own nor a distinct Ismaʿili law before the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa in 297/909.

  • HADITH iv. IN SUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    In keeping with all other categories of Islamic literature, the writings of the Sufis are replete with not only Koranic citations but also quotations of Hadith.

  • HADITH v. AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES

    Shaul Shaked

    The contact of Arabia with ancient Iran started even before Islam, and there are definite traces of the presence of Iranian religious notions in the Koran.

  • HĀDŌXT NASK

    Jean Kellens

    (Book of scriptures), the sixth of the seven Gaθic (Gāsānīg) nasks of the Sasanian Avesta, according to the Dēnkard (8.45.1).

  • HADRIAN

    Ernst Badian

    (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor 117-38. He abandoned the Parthian War and the provinces east of the Euphrates that had been instituted by Trajan but never securely held.

  • ḤĀʾERI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM YAZDI

    Hamid Algar

    , Shaikh (1859-1937), an influential “source of emulation” (marjaʿ-e taqlid) as well as founder of the institution of religious teaching and guidance (Ḥawza-ye ʿelmiya) in Qom. His literary legacy was relatively meager, the result of his preoccupation with administering the Ḥawza and teaching.

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  • HAFEZ

    Multiple Authors

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.

  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    D. Meneghini Correale

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    Julie Scott Meisami

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The earliest printed editions appeared outside of Persia. The first lithograph edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

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  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Franklin Lewis

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    Franklin Lewis

    The poetics of Hafez, perhaps more so than many Persian poets, depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations, adaptations, and inspirations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music in songs/lieder of the Western classical music tradition. 

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    Hamid Tafazoli

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    Priscilla Soucek

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

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