Table of Contents

  • ḤAYYA ʿALĀ ḴAYR AL-ʿAMAL

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    a religious formula, meaning “Come to the best of actions,” included in the call to prayer (aḏān) by all three major branches of Shiʿism, Twelvers, Zaydis and Ismaʿilis.

  • HAŽĀR

    Keith Hitchins

    pen name of ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Šarafkandi (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form.

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  • HAZĀR AFSĀN

    Cross-Reference

    The Persian title of The Arabian Nights, the world-famous collection of tales. See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀR O YAK ŠAB

    cross-reference

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀRA

    Arash Khazeni, Alessandro Monsutti, Charles M. Kieffer

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Arash Khazeni

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan.  In some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

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  • HAZĀRA ii. HISTORY

    Alessandro Monsutti

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

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  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    Alessandro Monsutti

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.

  • HAZĀRA iv. Hazāragi dialect

    Charles M. Kieffer

    The number of hazāragi speakers is approximately 1.8 million. The Afghan hazāragi varieties of Persian are essentially very close to modern tājiki, or rather of modern dari Persian, or even kāboli Persian, but their typology still has to be fully defined.

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  • HAZĀRASPIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods.

  • HAZĀRBED

    M. Rahim Shayegan

    or Hazāruft; title of a high state official in Sasanian Iran.

  • HAZĀRSOTUN

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    the palace-complex of Moḥammad b. Toḡloq (1325-1551) at Jahānpanāh (Delhi).

  • HAZELNUT

    H. Aʿlam

    (fandoq), the hard-shelled fruit of the shrub (or small tree) Corylus avellana L. (fam. Corylaceae), containing an edible kernel of high nutritious value.

  • ḤAZIN

    Jean During

    in Persian music, a small guša (melodic type) of the Persian classical model repertoire radif.

  • ḤAZIN LĀHIJI

    John R. Perry

    Persian poet and scholar (1692-1766), emblematic of the cultivated Shiʿite mirzā of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran who fled a politically dangerous and economically depressed milieu for the courts of Muslim India.

  • HAŽIR, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (1895-1949), Minister, Prime Minister, Court Minister. Hažir’s assassination was primarily a result of religio-political sentiments, accentuated by his high-profile royalism, his  identification with the least popular policies and conduct of the court and the government, and his image as a close ally of the British.

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  • HAZL

    cross-reference

    See HUMOR.

  • HEAD GEAR

    cross-reference

    See CLOTHING.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Medieval period. iii. Qajar period. iv. Pahlavi period.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Philippe Gignoux

    Health and medicine are clearly defined in Pahlavi literature in the philosophical and moral tradition already taught by the fifth-century BCE Greek “father of medicine,” Hippocrates.