Table of Contents

  • ḤOSAYNI BALḴI

    ʿAbd-al-ḥayy Ḥabibi

    13th-century translator into Persian of Wāʿeẓ-e Balḵi’s no longer extant Arabic work, the Fażāʾel-e Balḵ.

  • ḤOSAYNI DAŠTAKI ŠIRĀZI

    cross-reference

    See DAŠTAKI, AMIR JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA

    Jean Calmard

    buildings specifically designed to serve as venues for Moḥarram ceremonies commemorating the martyrdom of Ḥosayn b. ʿAli.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA-YE MOŠIR

    Jean Calmard

    a ḥosayniya building in the Sang-e Siāh quarter of Shiraz, famous for its exquisite tile paintings.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN MĀFI

    Cross-Reference

    See NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN SARDĀR-E IRAVĀNI

    George A. Bournoutian

    important governor in the early Qajar period (b. ca. 1742, d. 1831).

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI, ĀQĀ

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    noted tār player and teacher (1853-1916). His performances were considered both technically brilliant and artistically exquisite. The regularity and force of the down and up strokes (rāst and čap) of his plectrum were much admired. He used a five-string tār and disapproved of the addition of the sixth string.

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  • ḤOSN O DEL

    Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    an allegorical work by Fattāḥi Nišāburi (1404-46), one of the best examples of rhyming prose in the Timurid period.

  • ḤOSN-E TAʿLIL

    Natalia Chalisova

    (lit. “beauty of rationale”), “fantastic etiology,” a rhetorical device among the figures of ʿelm-e badiʿ (the science of rhetorical embellishment).

  • HOSSEIN, ANDRÉ

    Iraj Khademi

    As a composer, Hossein was much inspired by traditional Persian music, and most of his works demonstrate this intellectual preoccupation. He knew the tār very well and could be considered one of the great tār players of his time. He began playing this instrument as a child, and later composed several works for it.

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  • HOSSEINI, MANSOUREH

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    (1926-2012), pioneer modernist painter, writer, and gallerist, among the first Iranian artists who incorporated calligraphy in their modern works.

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  • HOSTAGE CRISIS

    Mohsen M. Milani and EIr

    the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations.

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  • HOTZ, ALBERT PAUL HERMAN

    Cyrus Ala’i

    a Dutch trader, collector of artifacts, and author on Iran (1855-1930).

  • HOUSING IN IRAN

    Habibollah Zanjani

    This entry examines: (1) the growth of housing units during 1966-96; (2) housing policies adopted in various development plans and the results; (3) main characteristics of housing in Iran; and (4) investment in, and economics of, housing.

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  • HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, ALBERT

    John D. Gurney

    , Sir, engineer and employee of the Persian government for over thirty years in the later 19th and early 20th centuries (1846-1916). For both the Persian government and the expatriate community, his importance reached far beyond any official position he held. Unlike many of the foreign advisers employed by successive Persian governments, he was both loyal and knowledgeable.

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  • HOVEYDA, AMIR-ABBAS

    Abbas Milani

    (Amir ʿAbbās Hoveydā; 1919-1979), the longest serving prime minister in the modern history of Iran (1964-1975). His tenure  can be divided into two phases. In the 1960s, he was full of optimism and energy; in the 1970s he was characterized by cynicism, a clinging attachment to power and its perks, and an almost despondent air of resignation. What remained the same were his economic policies.

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  • HUART, CLÉMENT

    Jean Calmard

    French orientalist (1854-1926), especially known as editor and translator of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish sources and prolific author of works covering many aspects of Oriental studies.

  • HÜBSCHMANN, (JOHANN) HEINRICH

    Erich Kettenhofen and Rüdiger Schmitt

    Hübschmann felt himself to be an orientalist. Originally an Iranian scholar, through his fundamental studies he became also the founder of modern Armenian linguistics; for it was he who created a solid basis for future historical-comparative research in this field.

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  • ḪUDIMIRI

    Inna Medvedskaya

    a peripheral district and city in Elam, mentioned only in the 7th century BCE, in the Assyrian sources during the reign of Ashurbanapal.

  • HŪGAR

    cross-reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • HŪITI

    cross-reference

    See AVESTAN PEOPLE.

  • HUḴT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    monthly periodical published in Persian by Iranian Zoroastrians, 1950-84.

  • HULĀGU KHAN

    Reuven Amitai

    fifth son of Tolui (and thus grandson of Čengiz Khan) and founder of the Il-khanid dynasty (b. ca. 1215, d. 1265).

  • HUMAN MIGRATION

    Mehdi Amani and Habibollah Zanjani

    This subject includes three types of human migration in modern Iran: (1) migration within the country; (2) immigration of foreign nationals to Iran; and (3) emigration of Iranians to foreign countries.

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  • HUMAN RIGHTS

    cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • HUMATA HŪXTA HUVARŠTA

    Mary Boyce

    three Avestan words which encapsulate the ethical goals of Zoroastrianism. In form verbal adjectives,  they were substantivized to mean “good thought, good word, good act.”

  • HUMBAN

    cross-reference

    See ELAM vi.

  • HUMOR

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    The making of jokes. In the present article the focus will be on description and classification of the types of humor that can be found in Persian literary sources, mainly belonging to the classical period.

  • HUMORALISM

    Amir Arsalan Afkhami

    (ṭebb-e jālinusi/ṭebb-e yunāni), or Galenism, a medical philosophy that considers illness as an imbalance in the body’s four elemental humors. which are identified as blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Each of these humors is believed to possess two natures: hot or cold and dry or moist.

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  • HUMORS

    cross-reference

    See HUMORALISM.

  • HUNNIC COINAGE

    Michael Alram

    coins struck from the late fourth to the early eighth century by successive Central Asian invaders (so-called Iranian Huns) of northeastern Iran and northwestern India. It must be emphasized that our knowledge of these Central Asian nomads is, to a certain extent, still vague; and the research on their history is controversial.

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  • HUNS

    Martin Schottky

    collective term for horsemen of various origins leading a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, thought to have descended from the Hsiung-nu, a nomadic people first mentioned in Chinese sources in 318 BCE.

  • HUNTING IN IRAN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period. See Supplement. Persian has two terms for hunting, naḵjīr and šekār, both of which have spread beyond Iranian languages.

  • HUNTINGTON, ELLSWORTH

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    American geographer (1876-1947). In Central Asia ihe collected extensive data and acquired several manuscripts and wooden documents in Kharoṣṭhī, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Khotanese.

  • HUR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    name of a newspaper (1943-45) and a bilingual (Persian and Armenian) monthly journal (1971-74).

  • HÜSING, GEORG

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    versatile German scholar, whose fields included Old Iranian and Elamite studies (1869-1930).

  • HUŠT

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    Zoroastrian-Persian term for the area (in known practice a town-quarter, a village, or a group of villages) assigned to a priest.

  • HUŠYĀR ŠIRĀZI

    DARYOUSH ASHOURI

    Upon his return to Persia with his German wife, Sirazi was employed as professor in the newly established University of Tehran. As a devoted and enthusiastic educator and author, his life, until his early death, was spent on energetically teaching his students and on introducing certain texts of German literature to Persian readers.

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  • HUTAOSA

    cross-reference

    See ATOSSA.

  • HUTUXŠ

    cross-reference

    and HUTUXŠBED, artisans as a class and the chief of artisans in Sasanian society. See CLASS SYSTEM ii.

  • HUVIŠKA

    A. D. H. Bivar

    ruler of the Great Kushan lineage, successor of Kaniška I the Great, known chiefly from inscriptions and from a prolific coinage. He reigned from at least the year 28 to 60 of the Kaniška Era, equivalent to 154-86 CE.

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  • HUZWĀREŠ

    D. Durkin-Meisterernst

    a term describing the use of Semitic word masks in Middle Persian texts, written in the official orthography of the Sasanian state and surviving in Zoroastrian texts, and a small number of inscriptions, and letters.

  • HVARCIERA

    cross-reference

    See XWARČIHR.

  • HYDARNES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hydárnēs), rendering of the Old Persian male name Vidṛna held by several historical persons of the Achaemenid period.

  • HYDE, THOMAS

    A. V. Williams

    , D.D., English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford, the first scholar to attempt to write a comprehensive description of the religion of Zoroaster (1636-1703).

  • HYDERABAD

    Gavin Hambly, Deborah Hutton

    (Ḥaydarābād), city in the Deccan of India, the former capital of the Nizams (Neẓāms) of Hyderabad (ca. 1724-1948) and at present the state capital of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It had a three and a half century history as one of the major Muslim states and as a center of Indo-Persian culture in the subcontinent.

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  • HYDROLOGY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology.

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  • HYENA

    Steven C. Anderson

    Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758), Pers. kaftār. The striped hyena is the only current Asian representative of the mammalian family Hyaenidae. Principal threats to hyena populations today are vehicular traffic (since they scavenge road kills at night), wanton shooting, and secondary poisoning. The hyena is a protected species in Iran.

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  • HYGIENE

    Cross-Reference

    See HEALTH IN PERSIA.

  • HYMN OF THE PEARL

    J. R. Russell

    or Hymn of the Soul, a Syriac poem, of which an early Greek translation also exists, composed probably in the third century CE in the region of Edessa.