Table of Contents

  • HOMĀYUN PĀDEŠĀH

    Wheeler M. Thackston

    (1508–56), NĀṢER-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, second Mughal emperor in Kabul and northern India, and the succesor to Bābor.

  • HOMMAIRE de HELL, IGNACE XAVIER MORAND

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    French engineer, geographer, traveler (1812-1848). He carried out pioneering scientific research in the Ottoman empire, southern Russia, and Persia

  • HOMOSEXUALITY

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islamic law. iii. In Persian literature. iv. In modern Persia. See Supplement.  

  • HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Zoroastrian literature contains discussions of personal relations only in legal contexts and is quite explicit with regard to sins of a sexual nature.

  • HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW

    E. K. Rowson

    The foundational texts of Islam address, and generally condemn, sexual relations between members of the same sex.

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iii. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

    EIr

    a sharp contrast exists between the treatment of homosexuality in Islamic law and its reflection in Persian literature, particularly poetry (the chief vehicle of Persian literary expression).

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iv. IN MODERN IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HONAR O MARDOM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a monthly magazine published by the General Office of Fine Arts in the Ministry of Education, 1957, 1962-79.

  • HONARESTĀN-E ʿĀLI-E MUSIQI-E MELLI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HONARMANDI, HASAN

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    poet, translator, and literary scholar.

  • HONEY

    Hushang Aʿlam

    (ʿasal, archaic Pers. angobin).  In Iranian lore, according to the Nowruz-nāma, Hušang, the second  Pišdādiān king, first “brought out honey from the zanbur (“wasp”).

  • ḤOQAYNI

    Wilferd Madelung

    the nesba of two 11th-century Zaydi Imams, father and son, scholars of religious law.

  • ḤOQUQ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the name of various 20th-century periodicals in Iran and Afghanistan.

  • ḤOQUQ-E EMRUZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a journal published irregularly in Tehran, 1963-76.

  • HORDĀD

    Antonio Panaino

    “Integrity (of body), Wholeness”, one of the Avestan entities (AMƎŠA SPƎNTA), normally mentioned in association with Amərətāt (AMURDĀD) already in the Gāθās.

  • HORMIZD

    cross-reference

    See HORMOZD i.

  • HORMOZĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    one of the last military leaders of Sasanian Persia, a member of one of the seven great families of Sasanian Persia (d. 644).

  • HORMOZD (1)

    cross-reference

    See AHURA MAZDĀ.

  • HORMOZD (2)

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (Ormisdas), a brother of the Sasanian great king Šāpur II (r. 307-79 CE), who participated on the Roman side in the emperor Julian’s Persian expedition of 363 CE.

  • HORMOZD I

    M. RAHIM SHAYEGAN

    Sasanian great king (r. 272-73 CE), the throne name of Šāpur I’s son and and successor, Hormozd-Ardašēr.

  • HORMOZD II

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 303-09 CE). He assumed a crown very similar to that of Bahrām II,  representing the varəγna, the royal falcon.

  • HORMOZD III

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 457-59 C.E.). He was the eldest son and heir of Yazdegerd II and “was king of Sejestān" (Ṭabari).

  • HORMOZD IV

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 579-90 CE). He succeeded Ḵosrow I Anōširavān just as the latter was negotiating a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire.

  • HORMOZD V

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 630-32 CE) in the turbulent years following the murder of Ḵosrow II Parvēz (628).

  • HORMOZD KUŠĀNŠĀH

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian prince governor of Kušān. He is known from his coins minted in eastern Iran and references in three Latin sources. His coins are gold scyphate (cup-shaped) and light bronze issues; rare heavy copper and silver coins also occur.

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  • HORMOZDGĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    BATTLE OF, the engagement which brought Ardašir I and the Sasanian dynasty to power, 28 April 224 CE.

  • HORMOZGĀN PROVINCE

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HORMOZI, SAʿID

    Jean During

    Said Hormozi did not perform in public, worked as a bank employee, and frequented musical circles such as that of Solaymān Amir Qāsemi, who preserved the purity of Persian music. He was a Sufi affiliated to the Ṣafi-ʿAlišāh brotherhood and entered a state of profound meditation when he played the setār, which made his music particularly captivating.

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  • HORMUZ i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    D. T. Potts

    island and a strategic strait (Tanga-ye Hormoz) in the Persian Gulf, linking it to the Gulf of Oman, as well as the name of a medieval port near the strait.

  • HORMUZ ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Willem Floor

    Hormuz fell to the Arabs in 650-51. In the 10th century, the town of Hormuz was the chief port for Kermān and Sistān, although the main Persian Gulf port was Jannāba. It was known for its cultivation of a variety of millet (ḏorra), indigo, cumin, and sugarcane.

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  • HORN, PAUL

    Erich Kettenhofen

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

  • HOROSCOPE

    David Pingree

    the horoscopic diagram or theme which depicts the positions of the planets in the zodiacal signs and of the zodiacal signs relative to the local horizon at a given time. 

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    Meir M. Bar Asher

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    Jean Calmard

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

  • HORSE

    cross-reference

    See ASB.

  • HORSE RACING

    Azartash Azarnoush

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    Mohammad Estelami

    (d. 1284), ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork, leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.

  • HŌŠANG

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty.

  • HŌŠANG JĀMĀSP

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    a distinguished Parsi scholar-priest (1833-1908).

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    cross-reference

    See JALĀYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI

    Multiple Authors

    Hosayn b. Ali is the second surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema and the third Imam of the Shiʿites after his father and his elder brother Ḥasan.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI i. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN SHIʿISM

    Wilferd Madelung

    In contrast to the pacifist and conciliatory character of his elder brother, Ḥosayn inherited his father’s fighting spirit and intense family pride, although he did not acquire his military prowess and experience.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI ii. IN POPULAR SHIʿISM

    Jean Calmard

    Legendary accounts about Ḥosayn and his martyrdom were from the outset influenced by his status as a Shiʿite Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI iii. THE PASSION OF ḤOSAYN

    Peter Chelkowski

    The taʿzia (literally “mourning”) is a dramatic form which Shiʿite Muslims in Persia have created to commemorate the tragedy of Ḥosayn ebn ʿAli, and thus it is comparable to the Christian passion play. See also TA'ZIA.

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  • ḤOSAYN B. OVAYS

    cross-reference

    See JALAYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ

    Said Amir Arjomand

    (d. 938), SHAIKH ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ B. ABI BAḤR NOWBAḴTI, third of the four “special vicegerents” (nowwab-e ḵāṣṣa) of the Hidden Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN BĀYQARĀ

    Hans R. Roemer

    the common designation for Sultan Abu’l-Ḡāzi Ḥosayn Mirzā b. Manṣur b. Bāyqarā, the last Timurid ruler of major importance in Khorasan (r. 1469-70 and 1470-1506).