Table of Contents

  • ḤARIRA

    Etrat Elahi

    a very light and diluted Persian dish made of fine wheat flour or wheat starch, or with rice flour or rice powder.

  • HARISA

    Etrat Elahi

    a cooked dish made from a mixture of grains, usually half-ground wheat and barley, and meat, usually lamb and more recently sometimes beef.

  • HARKARN DĀS KANBŌH

    S.H. Qasemi

    the first Hindu author of a Persian work, Eršād al-ṭālebin, commonly known as Enšāʾ-e Harkarn, a collection of documents and model letters.

  • HARKI

    Pierre Oberling

    (Herki), a Kurdish tribe of western Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, and northeastern Iraq.

  • HARP

    Bo Lawergren

    (čang), a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 BCE, until the 17th century.

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  • HARPAGOS

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    a Median magnate and the trusted advisor of the last Median king Astyages, In 550 BCE, during the war between the Medes and Persians, Harpagosdefected to support Cyrus II.

  • ḤARRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    an ancient town of Upper Mesopotamia, now located in the modern Turkish province of Diyarbakir approximately 40 km/25 miles south-southeast of Edessa, or Urfa.

  • HARRIMAN MISSION

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    The American diplomat W. Averell Harriman was sent to Tehran in July 1951 to mediate between Persia and Great Britain after Persian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

  • HARTNER, WILLY

    A. Panaino

    (1905-1981), professor of the History of Sciences specializing in astronomy,  author of many works devoted to Oriental studies, including ancient Persian calendar systems.

  • HĀRUN AL-MONAJJEM

    David Pingree

    (d. 987), astronomer, astrologer, and Hadith expert.

  • HĀRUN AL-RAŠID

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 809), HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH, the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi.

  • HĀRUN B. ALTUNTAŠ

    C. E. Bosworth

    son of a Turkish slave commander of Maḥmud of Ghazna who served as governor in Kᵛārazm 1032-35, first for the Ghaznavids, and then as an independent ruler.

  • HĀRUN WELĀYAT

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

  • HĀRUT and MĀRUT

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon, mentioned once in the Koran. Their names derive from the Zoroastrian Ḵordād and Amurdād, two of the Aməša Spəntas.

  • HARZANI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḪARZIANU

    I. N. Medvedskaya

    a city and a district in Media, mentioned in the Assyrian texts of the time of Sargon II (r. 722–705 BCE).

  • ḤASAB O NASAB

    Louise Marlow

    term used in Arabic and New Persian literature to express complementary aspects of the concept of nobility. 

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN

    Tahsin Yaziçi

    full name: ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN, ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ḴOʾI, 13th-century scribe, poet, and lexicographer from Azerbaijan.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    B. AL-MARZOBĀN AL-SIRĀFI. See SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-ʿASKARI

    cross-reference

    See ʿASKARI, ḤASAN B. ʿALI.