Table of Contents

  • HA-GE’ULLAH

    Amnon Netzer

    Judeo-Persian weekly newspaper published in Tehran between 1920 and 1923.

  • HAAS, WILLIAM S.

    Hossein Kamaly

    (1883-1956), German-born Iranist, advisor to the Iranian ministry of education and a pioneer of Iranian studies in the United States. 

  • ḤABAQUQ, TOMB OF

    S. Soroudi

    This brick monument, the overall shape of which is comparable with the tomb of Amir Timur in Samarqand, consists essentially of an octagonal tower topped by a conical roof. Each of the eight sides of the roughly 7 meter high tower is embellished with the design of an inset arch.

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  • ḤABIB AL-ESLĀM

    Nasser-al-Din Parvin

    Persian-language weekly newspaper published in Kabul, 1929 replacing Amān-e afḡān at the time of Bačča-ye Saqqā.

  • ḤABIB EṢFAHĀNI

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    , MIRZĀ, Iranian poet, grammarian, and translator (1835-93), who spent much of his life in exile in Ottoman Turkey. He is noted for his Persian grammar, Dastur-e Soḵan (Istanbul, 1872), which is regarded as the first systematic grammar of the Persian language and served as a model for many later works.

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  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH

    Ludwig W. Adamec

    , Amir, monarch who initiated modernization in Afghanistan (b. 1872, d. 1919).

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH ḴORĀSĀNI

    Jalal Matini

    , Hājj Mirzā, an enlightened religious scholar of Mašhad and a poet (1850-1909).

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH SĀVAJI

    Barbara Schmitz

    (1587-1628), one of the more conservative artists active during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1628). All we know about him, besides his paintings, is the brief note by his contemporary Qāżi Aḥmad, who, writing in 1596, referred to him as a masterful artist distinguished among his peers.

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  • ḤABIBĀBĀDI, MOʿALLEM

    Cross-Reference

    See MOʿALLEM ḤABIBĀBĀDI.

  • ḤABIBIYA SCHOOL

    Ludwig W. Adamec

    an elite high school for boys established in 1903 in Kabul and named after its founder, Amir Ḥabib-Allāh.

  • ḤABL AL-MATIN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit. strong cord), name of three newspapers published in Calcutta, Tehran, and Rašt.

  • ḤABLARUD

    M. H. Ganji

    river in Damāvand and Garmsār districts of Semnān province in northern Persia.

  • ḤADĀʾEQ AL-SEḤR

    N. Y. Chalisova

    shortened title of the famous treatise Ḥadāʾeq al-seḥr fi daqāʾeq al-šeʿr (“Gardens of magic in the subtleties of poetry”) by Rašid(-e) Waṭwāt (d. 1182-83).

  • HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP

    Aḥmad Birašk

    (Goruh-e Farhangi-e Hadaf), a pioneering private educational complex founded in Tehran in 1949-50.

  • HĀDI ḤASAN

    K. A. Jaisi

    Indian scholar of Persian literature (1894-1963).

  • HĀDI SABZAVĀRI

    Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    , Shaikh Mollā (1797-1873), the most famous Islamic philosopher of the Qajar period, as well as an outstanding theologian and a notable poet.

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  • ḤADIQAT AL-ḤAQIQA WA ŠARIʿAT AL-ṬARIQA

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    a Persian didactical maṯnawi by the twelfth-century poet Ḥakim Majdud b. Ādam Sanāʾi.

  • HADIŠ (1)

    cross-reference

    See PALACE i. ACHAEMENID.

  • HADIŠ (2)

    Mary Boyce

    the Avestan name of a minor Zoroastrian divinity, glossed in Pahlavi (tr. of Visprad 1:9) by mēnōg ī xānag “Spirit of the house.”

  • HADITH

    Shahab Ahmed, A. Kazemi-Moussavi, Ismail K. Poonawala, Hamid Algar, Shaul Shaked

    term denoting reports that convey the normative words and deeds of the Prophet Moḥammad; it is understood to refer generically to the entire corpus of this literature and to the thousands of individual reports that comprise it.

  • HADITH i. A General Introduction

    Shahab Ahmed

    Hadith literature is understood to be the repository of the sonna (normative conduct) of the Prophet, which is regarded as second in authority only to the Koran as a source of Divine truth.

  • HADITH ii. IN SHIʿISM

    A. Kazemi-Moussavi

    The Twelver Shiʿite conception of Hadith is generally in line with that of the Sunnites as discussed in Section i. However, Hadith about the Imams are authoritative as well.

  • HADITH iii. IN ISMAʿILISM

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    Ismaʿilis had neither a Hadith collection of their own nor a distinct Ismaʿili law before the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa in 297/909.

  • HADITH iv. IN SUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    In keeping with all other categories of Islamic literature, the writings of the Sufis are replete with not only Koranic citations but also quotations of Hadith.

  • HADITH v. AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES

    Shaul Shaked

    The contact of Arabia with ancient Iran started even before Islam, and there are definite traces of the presence of Iranian religious notions in the Koran.

  • HĀDŌXT NASK

    Jean Kellens

    (Book of scriptures), the sixth of the seven Gaθic (Gāsānīg) nasks of the Sasanian Avesta, according to the Dēnkard (8.45.1).

  • HADRIAN

    Ernst Badian

    (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor 117-38. He abandoned the Parthian War and the provinces east of the Euphrates that had been instituted by Trajan but never securely held.

  • ḤĀʾERI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM YAZDI

    Hamid Algar

    , Shaikh (1859-1937), an influential “source of emulation” (marjaʿ-e taqlid) as well as founder of the institution of religious teaching and guidance (Ḥawza-ye ʿelmiya) in Qom. His literary legacy was relatively meager, the result of his preoccupation with administering the Ḥawza and teaching.

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  • HAFEZ

    Multiple Authors

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.

  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    D. Meneghini Correale

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    Julie Scott Meisami

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The earliest printed editions appeared outside of Persia. The first lithograph edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

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  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Franklin Lewis

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    Franklin Lewis

    The poetics of Hafez, perhaps more so than many Persian poets, depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations, adaptations, and inspirations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music in songs/lieder of the Western classical music tradition. 

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    Hamid Tafazoli

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    Priscilla Soucek

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

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  • HAFEZ xiii. - xiv. HAFEZ’S TOMB (ḤĀFEẒIYA)

    Kuros Kamali Sarvestani

    The Hafeziya is located south of the Koran Gate (Darvāza-ye Qorʾān) on the northern edge of Shiraz. It is on the site of the famous Golgašt-e Moṣallā, the pleasure ground often mentioned in the poems of Hafez and occupies about 19,000 square meters, incorporating one of Shiraz’s most famous cemeteries, Ḵāk-e Moṣallā.

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  • ḤĀFEẒ EṢFAHĀNI

    Parviz Mohebbi

    , Mawlānā Moḥammad, known as Moḵtareʿ (inventor), 15th-16th century engineer, summoned by the Timurid court of Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā to construct a clock after a European model.

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  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ABRU

    Maria Eva Subtelny and Charles Melville

    (d. 1430), author of many historical and historico-geographical works in Persian, which were commissioned by Šāhroḵ, the Timurid ruler of Herat during the first decades of the 15th century.

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ʿAJAM

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    , HĀFEẒ-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, scholar of religion and author, renowned for his ability to write with speed and in an attractive style.

  • HAFT

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (seven), the heptad and its cultural significance in Persian history. The number has been explained as the symbolic expression of a distinct culture.

  • HAFT AMAHRASPAND YAŠT

    Antonio Panaino

    or simply Haf-tān yašt, the second hymn of the Avestan corpus. It is dedicated to the seven Zoroastrian entities and recited on the first seven days of the month.

  • HAFT EQLIM

    Cross-Reference

    See HAFT KEŠVAR.

  • HAFT KEŠVAR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (seven regions), the usual geographical division of the world in Iranian tradition. Ancient Iranians  envisioned the world as vast and round and encircled by a high mountain (harā bərəzaitī: see ALBORZ). According to this tradition, the world was divided into seven (circular) regions.

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  • HAFT ḴOSRAVĀNI

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    the seven musical systems or modes attributed to Bārbad, the famous court musician of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 590-628).

  • HAFT ḴᵛĀN

    Olga M. Davidson

    the title of two famous episodes in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Rostam, and the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Esfandiār, describing seven exploits that each hero had to undertake.