Table of Contents

  • GANDHĀRA

    Willem Vogelsang

    (OPers. Gandāra), a province of the Persian empire under the Achaemenids. The name of Gandhāra or Gandhārī occurs in ancient Indian texts as the name of a people.

  • GANDHĀRAN ART

    B. A. Litvinsky

    : Iranian contribution and Iranian connections. The region of Gandhāra attained its peak of prosperity in the Kushan period (1st to 3rd centuries CE), when it became one of the strongholds of Buddhism.

  • GĀNDHĀRĪ LANGUAGE

    Richard Salomon

    The language of ancient Gandhāra, the area around the Peshawar Valley in the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, lying near the border of the Indian and Iranian linguistic areas.

  • GANDOM

    Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin

    “wheat,”  both the plant and the grain. Wheat bread has been the staple of local diets throughout Iranian plateau for millennia. A very broad range of bread wheat varieties has traditionally been grown in the Iranian lands, especially in Afghanistan.

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  • GANDOMAK, TREATY OF

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    an agreement between Amir Moḥammad-Yaʿqub of Afghanistan (r. February to October 1879) and Major Pierre Louis Napolıon Cavagnari, representing the British Government of India.

  • GĀNEMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GANG DEŽ

    Cross-Reference

    See KANGDEŽ.

  • ḠANĪ (article 1)

    G. L. Tikku and EIr

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style (sabk-e hendī).

  • ḠANI (article 2)

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69). He practiced the “Speaking Anew” (tāza-guʾyi) stylistics of the ḡazal that had arisen across the Persian world in the early 1500s.

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  • ḠANĪ, QĀSEM

    Abbas Milani

    Qasem Gani was a prolific writer and, during his many years abroad, corresponded with several eminent figures of the time. His diaries, notebooks, and letters have been compiled and edited in twelve volumes under the general supervision of his son, Cyrus Ghani.

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