Table of Contents

  • GIVA

    Jamshid Sadaqat-Kish

    a traditional footwear in Persia, mainly consisting of an upper part made of twined white cotton thread sewn up on the edges of a cloth and leather or rubber sole. The earliest known mention of the word giva is probably ca. 1333, a reference to the bāzār-e giva-duzān (giva-makers’ market) of Shiraz.

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    Ezat O. Negahban

    or GIĀN TAPPA, Žiān Tappa; a large archeological mound located in Lorestān province in western Persia, about 10 km southeast of Nehāvand and southwest of Giān village in the Ḵāva valley.


    Eckart Ehlers

    and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations.

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    Parvin Loloi

    (d. ca. 1813), lexicographer and prolific translator of Persian literature into English.


    Jens Kröger

    Glass blowing was invented in the Syro-Palestinian region during the Parthian period in the mid-first century B.C.E. and quickly spread from there to neighboring regions. Production of glass was much more widely spread within the Sasanian empire; it also became in both shapes and types of decoration independent from Parthian prototypes.

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    Willem Floor

    Glass making has been known and practiced in Iran for about 3,500 years. Until about 1930 local glass making was done in small craft workshops. The raw materials needed for glass production abound in Iran except for soda ash, but this input will also soon be entirely domestically produced.

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    Carlo Cereti

    (1937-2012), an Iranist and historian of religion, combining an extraordinary scientific output with a constant focus on cultural policy.

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    Kurt Rudolph

    in Persia. The current academic term gnosticism or gnosis goes back to the early Christian period and has a heresiological background; its representatives were called Gnostics, meaning people who believed in specific “insights” and ways of behavior that deviated from the official church and its teachings and who disseminated their beliefs through their own writings.

  • GOAT


    See BOZ.