Table of Contents

  • GABAE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.

  • GABAIN, ANNEMARIE VON

    Peter Zieme

    Von Gabain was particularly interested in the question of the extent to which the religious ideas of the Central Asian peoples had been influenced by Zoroastrianism or other Iranian beliefs, and this perspective is reflected in several of her publications.

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  • GABBA

    Jean-Pierre Digard and Carol Bier

    a hand-woven pile rug of coarse quality and medium size (90 × 150 cm or larger) characterized by an abstract design that relies upon open fields of color and a playfulness with geometry. This kind of rug is common among the tribes of the Zagros (Kurdish, Lori-speaking ethnic groups, Qašqāʾīs).

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  • GABR

    Mansour Shaki

    a New Persian term used from the earliest period as a technical term synonymous with mōḡ (magus). With the dwindling of the Zoroastrian community,  the term came to have a pejorative implication.

  • GABRA

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌR.

  • GABRI WARE

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS.

  • GABRIEL, ALFONS

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GABRIELI, FRANCESCO

    Giuliano Lancioni

    The significance of Gabrieli’s contribution was widely recognized. He was a national member of Accademia dei Lincei since 1957 and served as its president in the years 1985-88; from 1968 to 1977 he was president of Istituto per l’Oriente.

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  • GAČ

    Cross-Reference

    See GYPSUM.

  • GAČ-BORĪ

    Sheila S. Blair

    plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the weather, but it was soon exploited for its decorative effects.

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  • GAČSAR

    Minu Yusof Nezhad

    a village in the Karaj district, situated at an altitude of 2,210 m at 110 km northwest of Tehran and 7 km south of the Kandavān Tunnel on the main road to the Caspian coast.

  • GAČSĀRĀN

    Eckart Ehlers

    town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia.

  • GADĀʾĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BEGGING.

  • GÄDIATỊ (SEḰAYỊ FỊRT) COMAQ

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (1883-1931), Ossetic writer.

  • ḠADĪR ḴOMM

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    lit. “pool of Ḵomm”; the name of a pool near a small oasis along the caravan route between the cities of Mecca and Medina, near an area currently known as Joḥfa.

  • GADŌTU

    Cross-Reference

    a demon. See UDA.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, FARROḴ KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    Kambiz Eslami

    Following in the footsteps of his father, GOLAM-HOSAYN KHAN GAFFARI began his career as one of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal pages. He had already received the title amīn(-e) ḵalwat when he accompanied the shah on his second journey to Khorasan in 1883. His promotion to the position of chief musketeer in 1883-84 was followed by two other appointments.

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  • ḠAFFARĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    a prominent Qajar painter. See KAMĀL-AL-MOLK.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM KHAN

    Kambiz Eslami

    MOHAMMAD-EBRAHIM KHAN GAFFARI was the son of Farroḵ Khan Amīn-al-Dawla (q.v.), a high-ranking Qajar official. He spent his early years in the inner circle of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s court and then traveled to Europe to continue his education. In 1891 he received the title Moʿāwen-al-Dawla, and was named the head of the Commerce Court and deputy minister of justice.

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  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    Kambiz Eslami

    NEZAM-AL-DIN GAFFARI was among the entourage of both Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah and Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah when they were touring Europe, during which he received a variety of decorations from European governments. In his later years, Ḡaffārī held several important positions, including the minister of mines, the minister of public services, and minister of education.

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  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ṢANĪʿ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • GAFUROV, BOBODZHAN GAFUROVICH

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    (1908-1977), Tajik statesman, academician, and historian. His energy and administrative skills were instrumental in establishing Tajikistan’s first State University in 1948, and in inaugurating its national Academy of Sciences in 1951. In spite of his many administrative duties, he published more than 500 works in Russian, Tajik, and other languages.

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  • GAGIK

    Cross-Reference

    See ARTSRUNI and BAGRATIDS.

  • GĀH

    Mary Boyce

    a Middle Persian, Parthian, and New Persian word meaning either “place” or “time.”

  • GĀH-ŠOMĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See CALENDARS.

  • GĀHAMBĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See GĀHĀNBĀR.

  • GĀHĀNBĀR

    Mary Boyce

    Middle Persian name for the feasts held at the end of each of the six seasons of the Zoroastrian year.

  • GAHĪZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Kabul from January 1968 to April 1973, owned, edited, and published by Menhāj-al-Dīn Gahīz (1922-73), who was apparently assassinated by Soviet agents.

  • GALBANUM

    Hushang Aʿlam

    There has been confusion or uncertainty about the nature (color, taste, odor, medicinal properties) of galbanum, about the plants involved, and the latter’s habitats. The confusion has resulted mainly from the more or less similarity of galbanum to other resins yielded by some other umbelliferous plants, e.g., sagapenum, asafetida, opopanax, and komā.

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  • ḠĀLEB DADA, MOḤAMMAD ASʿAD

    Tahsın Yazici

    also known as Mehmed Esad Galib Dede, Shaikh Ḡāleb, or Şeyh Galib (b. Istanbul, 1757; d. Galata, 1799) poet in Turkish and Persian.

  • ḠĀLEB, Mīrzā ASAD-ALLĀH Khan

    Munibur Rahman

    (b. Agra, 1797; d. Delhi, 1869), one of the greatest poets of Muslim India who wrote poems in both Persian and Urdu.

  • GALEN

    Cross-Reference

     See JĀLINUS.

  • GALERIUS

    Cross-Reference

    See NARSEH.

  • GĀLEŠĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪLĀN x. LANGUAGES

  • GALĪN QAYA

    Cross-Reference

    dialect. See HARZANDĪ.

  • GALLIMARD PRESS

    Cross-Reference

    See PUBLISHING HOUSES.

  • ḠALYĀN

    Shahnaz Razpush and EIr

    or QALYĀN (nargileh); a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco. It is composed of several parts: the bādgīr (chimney); sar-e ḡālyān or sarpūš (the top bowl; sar-ḵāna in Afghanistan); tana (the body); mīlāb (the immersion pipe); ney-e pīč (hose); and kūza (the reservoir of water).

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  • ḠALZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠILZĪ.

  • ḠAMĀM HAMADĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠEMĀM HAMADĀNĪ.

  • GAMASĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴA RIVER, forthcoming online.

  • GAMBRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GAMBRON

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GAMES

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZĪ.

  • GAN(N)ĀG MĒNŪG

    Cross-Reference

    See AHRIMAN.

  • GANĀVA

    Minu Yusofnezhad

    county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr.

  • GANDĀPŪR

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    one of two Šērānī Pashtun/Paxtun tribal segments (the other being the Baḵtīār), who claim origin in southwestern Afghanistan.

  • GANDĀPŪR, ŠĒR MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    b. Mehrdād Khan b. Āzād Khan, author of the Persian Tawārīḵ-e ḵoršīd-e jahān, an important chronicle containing genealogical accounts and tables of Pashtun/Paxtun tribal groups.

  • GAṆDARƎBA

    Antonio Panaino

    (Mid. Pers. Gandarw/Gandarb), a term attested the Avesta as the name of a monster living in the lake Vourukaṧa.

  • GANDHĀRA

    Willem Vogelsang

    (OPers. Gandāra), a province of the Persian empire under the Achaemenids. The name of Gandhāra or Gandhārī occurs in ancient Indian texts as the name of a people.

  • GANDHĀRAN ART

    B. A. Litvinsky

    : Iranian contribution and Iranian connections. The region of Gandhāra attained its peak of prosperity in the Kushan period (1st to 3rd centuries CE), when it became one of the strongholds of Buddhism.

  • GĀNDHĀRĪ LANGUAGE

    Richard Salomon

    The language of ancient Gandhāra, the area around the Peshawar Valley in the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, lying near the border of the Indian and Iranian linguistic areas.

  • GANDOM

    Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin

    “wheat,”  both the plant and the grain. Wheat bread has been the staple of local diets throughout Iranian plateau for millennia. A very broad range of bread wheat varieties has traditionally been grown in the Iranian lands, especially in Afghanistan.

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  • GANDOMAK, TREATY OF

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    an agreement between Amir Moḥammad-Yaʿqub of Afghanistan (r. February to October 1879) and Major Pierre Louis Napolıon Cavagnari, representing the British Government of India.

  • GĀNEMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GANG DEŽ

    Cross-Reference

    See KANGDEŽ.

  • ḠANĪ (article 1)

    G. L. Tikku and EIr

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style (sabk-e hendī).

  • ḠANI (article 2)

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69). He practiced the “Speaking Anew” (tāza-guʾyi) stylistics of the ḡazal that had arisen across the Persian world in the early 1500s.

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  • ḠANĪ, QĀSEM

    Abbas Milani

    Qasem Gani was a prolific writer and, during his many years abroad, corresponded with several eminent figures of the time. His diaries, notebooks, and letters have been compiled and edited in twelve volumes under the general supervision of his son, Cyrus Ghani.

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  • ḠANĪMAT KONJĀHĪ

    Arif Naushahi

    Persian poet from the Indian subcontinent, famous for composing Nīrang-e ʿešq (d. ca 1713).

  • ḠANĪZĀDA, MAḤMŪD

    Hassan Javadi

    b. Mīrzā Ḡanī Dīlmaqānī, liberal journalist, historian, and poet (1879-1936).

  • GANJ DAREH TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See ECBATANA.

  • GANJ-ʿALĪ KHAN

    Mohammad-Ebrahim Bastani Parizi

    a military leader and governor of Kermān, Sīstān, and Qandahār under Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629). 

  • GANJ-E ARŠADĪ

    S. H. Askari

    An Indo-Persian collection of sayings (malfūẓāt) of the Češtī saint of Jaunpour Aršad Badr-al-Ḥaqq (1047-1113/1637-1701).

  • GANJ-E BĀDĀVARD

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (the treasure brought by the wind), name of one of the eight treasures of the Sasanian Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 C.E.) according to most Persian sources.

  • GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud

    Gerhard Böwering

    Popularly known as Bābā Farid, a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 6th/12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab.

  • GANJ-E ŠĀYAGĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement

  • GANJ-NĀMA

    Stuart C. Brown

    (lit. treasure book), location in a pass at an altitude of about 2,000 m across the Alvand Kūh leading westward to Tūyserkān, 12 km southwest of Hamadān.

  • GANJA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Ar. Janza), the Islamic name of a town in the early medieval Islamic province of Arrān (the classical Caucasian Albania, Armenian Alvankʿ).

  • GANJA, TREATY OF

    Cross-Reference

    See NĀDER SHAH.

  • GANJAFA

    Cross-Reference

    See CARD GAMES.

  • GANJAʾĪ, REŻĀ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    Ganjaʾī owes his fame to his publication of the politico-satirical weekly Bābā Šamal in 1943-45 and 1947, which became one of the most popular satirical journals in the history of journalism in Persia. Thereafter, most of his colleagues, journalists, writers, and even public figures addressed him as “Bābā Šamal.”

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  • GANJAK

    Cross-Reference

    See GANZAK.

  • GANJĪNA-YE FONŪN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a biweekly magazine published in Tabrīz for a year (1903-04). It was the first scholarly Persian periodical published in Persia.

  • GANZABARA

    Matthew W. Stolper

    (treasurer), title of provincial and sub-provincial financial administrators in the Achaemenid empire, extended to workers attached to Achaemenid treasuries.

  • GANZAK

    Mary Boyce

    a town of Achaemenid foundation in Azerbaijan. The name means “treasury” and is a Median form (against Pers. gazn-), adopted in Persian administrative use.

  • GAOTƎMA

    Bernfried Schlerath

    an Avestan proper name only attested in Yt. 13.16: “An eloquent man will be born, who makes his words heard in verbal contests, ... victorious over the defeated Gaotəma.”

  • ḠĀR

    Ezzat O. Negahban

    (cave) and Stone Age cave dwellers in Iran. Caves and rock shelters were particularly attractive living places for the hunter gatherers of the early Paleolithic period. The geographic situation of the Iranian Plateau with its bordering mountain system meant that there were many cave sites which would have been suitable for early cave dwelling man.

  • GARAMAIOI

    Cross-Reference

    See BĒT GARMĒ.

  • ḠARB-ZADEGĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠARČESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb.

  • GARCIN DE TASSY

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GARDANE MISSION

    Jean Calmard

    (1807-9), a diplomatic and military project between France and Persia which represented Napoleon’s last attempt to realize his Oriental ambitions. From late 1795, Persia became part of French projects against British India. From the renewal of Franco-Ottoman relations (June 1802), he sought information on Persia.

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  • GARDEN

    Multiple Authors

    referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions.

  • GARDEN i. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mehrdad Fakour

    Since the first millenium B.C.E., the garden has been an integral part of Persian architecture, be it imperial or vernacular.

  • GARDEN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Lisa Golombek

    Donald Wilber’s study of the Persian garden remains the most comprehensive, to which should be added the articles by Ettinghausen and Pinder-Wilson in the proceedings of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the Islamic Garden.

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  • GARDEN iii. INFLUENCE OF PERSIAN GARDENS IN INDIA

    Howard Crane

    Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Kōṭlā) of the Tughluqid Fīrūzšāh III (1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th century). Mughal landscape architecture, which was characterized by terraced sites, čahārbāḡ  plans, and raised walks, is perhaps most renowned for its dramatic and inventive use of moving water.

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  • GARDEN iv. BOTANICAL GARDENS

    Borhan Riazi

    In Persia there are only three botanical gardens (bāḡ-e gīāh-šenāsī) in the exact scientific sense of this term.

  • GARDEN vi. IN PERSIAN ART

    Lisa Golombek

    For the decorative arts, the “garden carpet” is the quintessential re-creation of the garden, while paintings depict the garden as a setting for events. Vegetal motifs as ornament may be understood as generic allusions to the garden. In special circumstances, these allusions may be viewed as allusions to paradise themes.

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  • GARDĪZ

    Daniel Balland

    (Gardēz), a city in the Solaymān Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, 122 km south of Kabul. The city is situated at 2,300 m above sea-level, in a large intramountainous depression watered by the upper course of the Rūd-e Gardīz.

  • GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century. He was clearly connected with the Ghaznavid court and administration and close to the sultans.

  • GARDŌY

    Cross-Reference

    sister of Bahrām Čōbīn. See BAHRĀM (2) vii.

  • GARGAR RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀRŪN RIVER.

  • GARLIC

    Etrat Elahi

    or allium sativum; a species in the onion family Alliaceae used as an ingredient in a variety of Persian dishes mainly as a condiment.

  • GARMAPADA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of the fourth month (June-July) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • GARMSĀR

    Bernard Hourcade

    a region (Qešlāq and Garmsār) in the province of Semnān situated beyond the Caspian Gates, known particularly as a stopover on the great road to Khorasan.

  • GARMSĪR AND SARDSĪR

    Xavier de Planhol

    lit. "warm zones and cold zones"; two terms identifying regional entities that form a major geographical contrast deeply affecting the popular conscience in Persia.

  • GARŌDMĀN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for heaven and paradise.

  • GARRETT COLLECTION

    Kambiz Eslami

    one of the finest collections of Near Eastern manuscripts, bequeathed to the Princeton University Library by Robert Garrett (1875-1961), a graduate and a trustee of the university.

  • GARRŪS

    Cross-Reference

    See under KURDISTAN, forthcoming online.

  • GARRŪSĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See KURDISH DIALECTS, forthcoming online.

  • GARRŪSĪ, AMĪR NEẒĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪR NEẒĀM GARRŪSĪ.

  • GARRŪSĪ, FAŻEL KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See FĀŻEL KHAN GARRŪSĪ, MOḤAMMAD

  • GARŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See GAYŌMART.

  • GARŠĀSP

    Cross-Reference

    See KARŠĀSP.

  • GARŠĀSP-NĀMA

    François de Blois

    or Karšāsp-nāma; a long heroic epic by Asadī Ṭūsī (d. 1072/73) completed, as the author says in the epilogue, in 1066, and dedicated to a ruler of Naḵjavān by the name of Abū Dolaf.

  • GARSĒVAZ

    Cross-Reference

    See KARSĒVAZ.

  • GAS, NATURAL

    Forthcoming

    natural gas industry in Persia. See Supplement.

  • ḠAṢB

    Forthcoming

    concept in Shiʿite law, meaning usurpation or unlawful seizure. See Supplement.

  • GASTEIGER, ALBERT JOSEPH

    HELMUT SLABY

    In 1870, Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah decided to make a pilgrimage to Karbalāʾ, and Gasteiger repaired and partially rebuilt the road via Hamadān and Kermānšāh to the Turkish border and also rendered the road from Kangāvar via Qom to Tehran usable.

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  • GATE

    Cross-Reference

    See DARVĀZA.

  • GATHAS

    Multiple Authors

    or GĀΘĀS; the core of the great Mazdayasnian liturgy, the Yasna, consisting of five gāθās, or modes of song (gā) that comprise seventeen songs composed in Old Avestan language, and arranged according to their five different syllabic meters.

  • GATHAS i

    Helmut Humbach

    Each single song covers one chapter (Av. hāiti-, Phl. ) of the Yasna.

  • GATHAS ii

    William W. Malandra

    Of the entire corpus of the Avesta, the Gathas have been translated far more frequently than any of its other divisions.

  • GAUB(A)RUVA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Old Persian personal name, spelled g-u-b-ru-u-v (DB IV 84 etc.) and reflected in Elamite Kam-bar-ma, Babylonian Gu-ba-ru(-ʾ) (DB etc.), Ku-bar-ra (DNc 1), Gu-ba(r)-ri, etc., Aramaic gwbrw (not gwbrwh, as restored in the past), Greek Gōbrýās, Gōbrýēs, and Latin Gobryas. 

  • GAUDEREAU, MARTIN

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (b. Langeais, 1663; d. Paris, 1743), French missionary priest (and later Abbé) who left valuable observations on Persia and played a part in Franco-Persian relations.

  • GAUGAMELA

    Ernst Badian

    site of one of the greatest battles in history, resulting in the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over Darius III on 1 October 331 B.C.E.

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  • GAUMĀTA

    Pierre Briant

    according to the Bīsotūn inscriptions, the Magian pretender who seized the Achaemenid throne by claiming to be Bardiya (Smerdis), the son of Cyrus the Great.

  • GĀV

    Cross-Reference

    See CATTLE.

  • GĀV-ZABĀN

    Hushang Aʿlam

    lit. ”ox-tongue” (in reference to the rough, tongue-shaped leaves of the plant); the popular designation for several medicinal species of the borage family (Boraginaceae).

  • GAVA

    Cross-Reference

    See SOGHDIA.

  • GĀVĀHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See PLOW.

  • ḠĀVĀL

    Jean During

    or daf; the most widespread percussion instrument in the Republic of Azerbaijan, played as much in artistic as in popular music and professional ensembles.

  • GAVAN

    Cross-Reference

    plant of the genus Astragalus. See TRAGACANTH (pending).

  • GĀVĀN GĪLĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See MAḤMŪD GĪLĀNĪ.

  • GAVAZN

    Cross-Reference

    See RED DEER.

  • GĀVBAND

    Amir Ismail Ajami

    the owner of the oxen (gāv) in the traditional farming system of Persia.

  • GĀVBĀRA

    Cross-Reference

    See DABUYIDS.

  • GĀVBĀZĪ

    Christian Bromberger

    arranged fights between bulls. These now take place only in the Caspian provinces of Gīlān and Mazandarān. In the past, however, they were common throughout Persia and formed part of the entertainment in local festivities along with other games involving pitting animals and creatures of all kinds against each other.

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  • GĀVMĪŠ

    Cross-Reference

    buffalo. See CATTLE.

  • GAVOR QALʿA

    Cross-Reference

    See GYAUR KALA.

  • GĀW Ī ĒWDĀD

    William W. Malandra

    or ēwagdād; the name of the primordial Bovine in Zoroastrian mythology.

  • ḠAWṮ KHAN, NAWWĀB MOḴTĀR-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See NAWWĀB-E DAKHAN.

  • ḠAWṮĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    K. A. Nizami

    b. Ḥasan b. Mūsā Šaṭṭārī MANDOVĪ (b. Mandu, 1554), author of Golzār-e-abrār, a Persian hagiography of Indian saints.

  • ḠAYBA

    Said Amir Arjomand

    (Pers. ḡaybat) lit. "absence"; term used by the Shiʿites to refer to the occultation of the Hidden Imam.

  • ḠĀYER KHAN

    Peter Jackson

    b. Tekeš (d. 1220), Turkish general of the Ḵᵛārazmšāh ʿAlāʾ-al-Dīn Moḥammad.

  • GAYḴĀTŪ KHAN

    Peter Jackson

    (1291-95) fifth Mongol Il-khan of Persia; his coins also bear the name Īrinjīn Dūrjī (Tibetan Rin-chen rDo-rje, lit. “Jewel Diamond”) bestowed upon him by Buddhist lamas.

  • GAYŌMART

    Mansour Shaki

    or Gayūmarṯ, Kayūmarṯ; the sixth of the heptad in Mazdean myth of creation, the protoplast of man, and the first king in Iranian mythical history.

  • GAYSĀTA

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    the name of a town in Khotanese documents in the A. F. R. Hoernle, Mark Aurel Stein, Sven Hedin, and N. F. Petrovsky collections.

  • GAZ (1)

    B. Grami, M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    common term in Persian for several species of the genera Tamarix (desert trees) and Astragalus (spiny shrubs of gavan); also the name of a confection made with the sweet exudate (gaz-angobīn) produced on Astragalus.

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  • GAZ (2)

    Minu Yusofnezhad

    or Jaz; a town in the province of Isfahan, of the šahrestān of Barḵᵛār and Mayma, situated 18 km north of the city of Isfahan at an altitude of 1,578 m above sea level.

  • ḠAZĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM IN IRAN xi. JIHAD IN ISLAM.

  • GAZA

    Cross-Reference

    See GANZAK.

  • GAZACA

    Cross-Reference

    See GANZAK.

  • ḠAŻĀʾERĪ

    Etan Kohlberg

    nesba of two Imami authors and traditionists (10th-11th centuries).

  • ḠAŻĀʾERĪ RĀZĪ, ABŪ ZAYD MOḤAMMAD

    François de Blois

    or ḠAŻĀYERĪ RĀZĪ, b. ʿALĪ, Persian poet of the early 11th century.

  • ḠAZAL i. HISTORY

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    the most important Persian lyric, adopted also by literatures influenced by the classical Persian tradition, in particular Turkish and Urdu poetry. OVERVIEW of entry: i. History, ii. Characteristics and Conventions.

  • ḠAZAL ii. CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVENTIONS

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Persian ḡazal, especially the Hafezian and the post-Hafezian, does not usually follow a sustained narrative, but consists of a number of lines and statements largely independent of each other.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ MAŠHADĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    (b. Mašhad, 1526-27, d. Ahmadabad, 1572), poet laureate in Persian (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD

    Multiple Authors

    b. Moḥammad Ṭūsī (1058-1111), one of the greatest systematic Persian thinkers of medieval Islam and a prolific Sunni author on the religious sciences (Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and mysticism) in Saljuq times. Overview of entry: i. Biography, ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat, iv. Minor Persian works, v. As a Faqīh, vi. Ḡazālī and Theology, vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic Thought.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD i

    Gerhard BÖWERING

    (variant name Ḡazzālī; Med. Latin form, Algazel; honorific title, Ḥojjat-al-Eslām"The Proof of Islam”), born at Ṭūs in Khorasan in 450/1058 and grew up as an orphan together with his younger brother Aḥmad Ḡazālī (d. 520/1126; q.v.).

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, ii, iii

    W. Montgomery Watt

    ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat. 

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, iv

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    iv. Minor Persian works.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, v

    Wael B. Hallaq

    v. As a Faqīh.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vi

    Michael E. Marmura

    vi. Ḡazālī and Theology.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vii, viii

    Wilferd Madelung

    vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic thought.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, MAJD-AL-DĪN Abu’l-Fotūḥ AḤMAD

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad (ca. 1061-1126), outstanding mystic, writer, and eloquent preacher.

  • ḠĀZĀN KHAN, MAḤMŪD

    R. Amitai-Preiss

    (1271-1304), oldest son of Arḡūn Khan and his eventual successor as the seventh Il-khanid ruler of Persia (r. 1295-1304).

  • ḠĀZĀN-NĀMA

    Charles Melville

    a verse chronicle of the reign of the Il-khan Ḡāzān Khan (1295-1304), by Ḵᵛāja Nūr-al-Dīn b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aždarī.

  • ḠAŻĀYERĪ RĀZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠAŻĀʾERĪ RĀZĪ.

  • GAŽDAHAM

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    an Iranian hero of Dež-e Safīd, a fortress near the border seperating Iran from Tūrān, during the reigns of the Kayanid kings Nōḏar and Kay Kāvūs.

  • GAZELLE

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀHŪ, CHINKARA.

  • GAZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ISFAHAN xxii.

  • GAZMA

    Cross-Reference

    See CITIES.

  • ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ

    EIr

    b. Masʿūd III, a poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultan Bahrāmšāh (r. ca. 1117-1157).

  • ḠAZNĪ

    Xavier de Planhol, Roberta Giunta

    or Ḡazna, Ḡaznīn; province and city in southeastern Afghanistan, the latter situated 136 km south of Kabul at an altitude of about 2,200 meters. The earliest known monuments of Ḡaznī belong to the Ghaznavid period (366-583/977-1187), the best representative of which are the two minarets standing east of the citadel, close to two large mounds resembling mosques.

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  • GAZOPHYLACIUM LINGUAE PERSICAE

    Cross-Reference

    See DICTIONARIES iii.

  • GĀZORGĀH

    Lisa Golombek

    a village approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the city of Herat in present-day northwestern Afghanistan at 34°22′ N and 62°14′ E, situated at an elevation of 4,100 feet.

  • GĀZORGĀHĪ, MĪR KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    Shiro Ando

    b. Šeḥāb-al-Dīn Esmāʿīl Ṭabasī (b. 1469/70), a Timurid ṣadr and author of a collection of biographies of Sufis known as the Majāles al-ʿoššāq.

  • GEBER

    Cross-Reference

    See GABR, MAJŪS.

  • GEDROSIA

    Willem J. Vogelsang

    or Kedrosia; a place-name known only from Classical sources.

  • GEIGER, BERNHARD

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    Geiger studied Hebrew and Arabic before being persuaded by Leopold von Schroeder to turn to Indian and Iranian studies. Among his teachers in Vienna, Bonn, Prague, Göttingen, and Heidelberg were the Indologists Leopold von Schroeder, Moriz Winternitz, and Franz Kielhorn and the Iranists Friedrich Carl Andreas (q.v.) and Jacob Wackernagel.

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  • GEIGER, WILHELM

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Geiger’s first publication (1877) was an edited version and annotated translation of the Pahlavi version of the first chapter of the Vidēvdād, the first part of which was his doctoral thesis. Later in 1880 he published a translation with commentary of the third chapter.

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  • GĒL

    Cross-Reference

    tribes in the Arsacid and Sasanian periods. See GĪLĀN.

  • GELDNER, KARL FRIEDRICH

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Geldner’s first significant work appeared in 1874 while he was still a student, in the form of an answer to a prize essay question posed by the Philosophical Faculty at Tübingen. The essay was expanded and published in 1877 under the title Über die Metrik des jüngeren Avesta.

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  • GELĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See CARPETS.

  • GELPKE, RUDOLF

    HERMANN LANDOLT

    Rudolf Gelpke was educated at the universities of Basel, Zürich, and Berlin. He became a noted writer in his early twenties, and his novel Holger und Mirjam was published in Zürich in 1951. His interests in the Islamic world began after a visit to Tunisia in 1952.

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  • GELŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See GAYŌMART.

  • GEMCUTTING

    Parviz Mohebbi

    (Pers. ḥakkākī), the process of shaping and polishing faceted gemstones. The first-known reference in Persian to gem cutting is found in an anonymous treatise on jewelry, Jowhar-nāma-ye neẓāmī, written in 1195-96 under the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh. According to the sources, gem cutting and polishing were both done by the same machine—the grinding wheel or čarḵ-e ḥakkākī.

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  • GENÇOSMAN, MEHMED NURÎ

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Ağın district of Elazığ, 1897; d. Istanbul, 1976), Turkish poet and translator of Persian works.

  • GENDARMERIE

    Stephanie Cronin

    the first modern highway patrol and rural police force in Persia. The Government Gendarmerie (Žāndārmerī-e dawlatī) was established in 1910 by the second Majles and proved the most enduring in a series of official projects for the modernization of the armed forces under the leadership of foreign officers.

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  • GENDER RELATIONS i

    Farzaneh Milani

    Gender relations in Persia.  Overview of article: i. In Modern Persia, ii. In the Islamic Republic.

  • GENDER RELATIONS ii

    Hammed Shahidan

    ii. In the Islamic Republic.

  • GENGHIS KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ČENGĪZ KHAN.

  • GENIE

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    name of a category of supernatural beings believed to have been created from smokeless fire and to be living invisibly side-by-side the visible creation.

  • GENOA

    Michele Bernardini

    an important port city in Liguria, in northwestern Italy, which during the Middle Ages played a significant role between Europe and the East, including Persia. Genoa was sacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa in 935 but became an economic and commercial power during the First Crusade (1096-1101).

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  • GEOGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. Overview of the entry: i. Evolution of geographical knowledge, ii. Human geography, iii. Political geography, iv. Cartography of Persia.

  • GEOGRAPHY i. Evolution of geographical knowledge

    Xavier de Planhol

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. The concept of Iran and ancient Iranian geography (Justi; Spiegel, I, pp. 188-243 and especially pp. 210-12; Herzfeld, pp. 671-720; Gnoli, 1980, 1989).

  • GEOGRAPHY ii. Human geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The primordial component of the land of Iran, since it was a sedentary world as opposed to the nomadic Tūrān, must have been situated above the level of the internal steppes and deserts, in the highland river valleys having both arable alluvial soils and plenty of water from the rainfall in the mountains.

  • GEOGRAPHY iii. Political Geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The territory of Tajikistan corresponds with the predominantly Iranian ethnic sector of the mountainous south-eastern periphery of the Bukhara emirate, which came under Russian influence at the end of the 19th century. Its southern and eastern borders with Afghanistan and China are the results of international treaties.

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  • GEOGRAPHY iv. Cartography of Persia

    CYRUS ALAI

    The world’s oldest known topographical map is a Babylonian clay tablet (ca. 2300 B.C.E.) found at Nuzi in northeastern Iraq. It is a relatively advanced picture map, showing two ranges of hills, as seen from the side, and the rivers they flank, by a series of parallel lines. The site covered by this map may have lain between the Zagros mountains and the hills running through Kirkuk.

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  • GEOLOGY

    Eckart Ehlers

    This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its inhabitants, primarily (1) geological structure and orohydrographic differentiation of Persia, (2) geology and natural hazards, and (3) geology and natural resources.

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  • GEOPOTHROS

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GEORGIA

    Multiple Authors

    (Pers. Gorjestān; Ar. al-Korj). This series of entries covers Georgia and its relations with Iran.

  • GEORGIA i. The land and the people

    Keith Hitchins

    At a crossroads of great empires to the east, west, and north throughout their history, the Georgians absorbed and adapted elements from the cultures of diverse peoples, while at the same time defending their political and cultural independence against all comers. The Georgians are today distinguished by a unique cultural heritage.

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  • GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations

    Keith Hitchins

    Between the Achaemenid era and the beginning of the 19th century, Persia played a significant and at times decisive role in the history of the Georgian people. The Persian presence helped to shape political institutions, modified social structure and land holding, and enriched literature and culture. Persians also acted as a counterweight to other powerful forces in the region.

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  • GEORGIA iii. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology

    Gocha R. Tsetskhladze

    Ancient Georgian tribes had close cultural contacts with Near Eastern civilizations from the 18th century BCE. Iranian elements appeared from the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., as they did in the art of the entire Caucasian region.

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  • GEORGIA iv. Literary contacts with Persia

    Aleksandre Gvakharia

    The tribes of Georgia had a well-established and vast literary tradition and folklore long before the Christian era. None of the pre-Christian Georgian literary works have survived, however. Christianity became established in Georgia as an official religion at the beginning of the 4th century, and in the 5th century the first surviving literary work was created.

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  • GEORGIA v. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS WITH IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    Thea Chkeidze

    Due to many centuries of close contacts between Georgia and Persia, a large number of Iranian loanwords came into the Georgian language.

  • GEORGIA vi. Iranian studies and collections in Georgia

    Keith Hitchins

    The institutional foundations of Iranian studies in Georgia were laid after the Russian Revolution of 1917.

  • GEORGIA vii. Georgians in the Safavid Administration

    Rudi Matthee

    Safavid interaction with Georgia and its inhabitants dates from the inception of the state in the early 16th century, when Georgians fought alongside the Qezelbāš in Shah Esmāʿīl I’s arm.

  • GEORGIA viii. Georgian communities in Persia

    Pierre Oberling

    Many thousands of Georgians, Armenians, and Circassians who were transplanted to Persia by Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629) were peasants, and they were settled in villages in the Persian hinterland.

  • GEORGIEVSK, TREATY OF

    Cross-Reference

    See GEORGIA, iii.

  • GEOY TEPE

    Ezat O. Negahban

    a rich archeological site located in western Azerbaijan about 7 km south of the town of Urmia (Reżāʾīya) plain made known through the aerial survey of ancient sites in Persia carried out by Erich F. Schmidt in the 1930s.

  • GERĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    son of Jāmāsp. See JĀMĀSP.

  • GERĀYLĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Khorasan, Gorgān, and Māzandarān.

  • GERDKŪH

    Farhad Daftary

    a fortress on the summit of an isolated rocky hill in the Alborz mountains, situated some 18 km west of Dāmḡān in northern Persia.

  • GERDŪ

    Cross-Reference

    See WALNUT.

  • GEREH-SĀZĪ

    Marcus Milwright

    (lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork (bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence).

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  • GEREŠK

    Daniel Balland

    a small oasis-city on the right bank of the Helmand river in Southern Afghanistan, the headquarters of the district (woloswālī) of Nahr-e Serāj within the province of Helmand.

  • GERMANIKEIA

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the ancient country of Commagene in the Roman province of Syria, present-day Maraş in southeast Turkey.

  • GERMANIOI

    Pierre Briant

    (also Karmanians, Carmanians), name of an ancient Persian tribe engaged in farming.

  • GERMANY

    Multiple Authors

    i. German-Persian diplomatic relations, ii. Archeological excavations and studies, iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period, iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic period, v. German travelers and explorers in Persia, vi. Collections and study of Persian art in Germany, vii. Persia in German literature, viii. German cultural influence in Persia, ix. Germans in Persia, x. The Persian community in Germany.

  • GERMANY i. German-Persian diplomatic relations

    Oliver Bast

    Around 1555 a man coming from Italy, who called himself the son of the “king of Persia,” turned up at the University of Wittenberg.

  • GERMANY ii. Archeological excavations and studies

    Dietrich Huff

    The first Germans who reported on the historical and archeological monuments of the ancient Persian world, were, as in other nations, adventurers and travelers of a different kind. Their reports can be significant as contemporary descriptions of the condition of monuments in late medieval times, particularly those which have vanished or are seriously altered nowadays.

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  • GERMANY iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    This contribution aims at presenting an overview of the studies on all aspects of the culture of pre-Islamic Iran as conducted by German, Austrian, and Swiss scholars.

  • GERMANY iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic Period

    Bert G. Fragner

    Until World War I, there were only a few scholars concentrating on subjects specifically Iranian, but many Orientalists did not refrain from dealing with Iranian, particularly Persian, affairs.

  • GERMANY v. German travelers and explorers in Persia

    Oliver Bast

    Hans Schiltberger, a Bavarian soldier, was the first German to give an eyewitness account of his travels in Persia. Initially captured by the Ottomans in 1396, he later became a prisoner of Tīmūr at the battle of Ankara (1402).

  • GERMANY vi. Collections and Study of Persian Art in Germany

    Jens Kröger

    Until the 19th century, Persian works of art entered collections in Germany by mere chance. From then on, works of art from all periods of Persian history were collected systematically to acquire knowledge of the world and to educate and inspire artists and craftsmen. Collecting, exhibiting, and studying Persian art reached an unprecedented scale in the 20th century.

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  • GERMANY vii, viii. German cultural influence in Persia

    Christl Catanzaro

    German culture was and is very highly appreciated in Persia, but its influence on Persian culture is usually overrated. A lasting influence was mainly exercised on Persians who either attended a German school in Persia, had other personal contacts with Germans, studied in Germany, or worked there.

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  • GERMANY ix. Germans in Persia

    Oliver Bast

    The Germans in Persia who have risen to a certain prominence fall mainly into one or more of the following categories: a) travelers and explorers (see above); b) experts in the service of the Persian government; c) agents and soldiers; d) members of German institutions in Persia.

  • GERMANY x. The Persian community in Germany

    Asghar Schirazi

    Only a small number of Persians resided in Germany before World War I. They were for the most part students besides several merchants and a few political emigrants.

  • GEROWGĀN-GĪRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See HOSTAGE CRISIS; IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR.

  • GEŠNĪZ

    Cross-Reference

    See CORIANDER.

  • GĒSŪ-DARĀZ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪSŪ-DARĀZ.

  • GĒTĪG AND MĒNŌG

    SHAUL SHAKED

    a pair of Middle Persian terms that designate the two forms of existence according to the traditional Zoroastrian view of the world as expressed in the Pahlavi books.

  • GƎUŠ TAŠAN

    William W. Malandra

    (the fashioner of the Cow), a divine craftsman who figures prominently in the Gathas of Zoroaster but falls into obscurity in the Younger Avesta, being there associated with the fourteenth day of the month, known in Middle Persian simply as Gōš.

  • GƎUŠ URUUAN

    William W. Malandra

    “the soul of the Cow,” the name of the archetypal Bovine, whose plight is a subject of Zoroaster’s gāθā, often identified as “the Cow’s Lament.”

  • GĒV

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    one of the foremost heroes of the national epic in the reigns of Kay Kāvūs and Kay Ḵosrow.

  • GHAZNAVIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Islamic dynasty of Turkish slave origin 977-1186, which in its heyday ruled in the eastern Iranian lands, briefly as far west as Ray and Jebāl; for a while in certain regions north of the Oxus, most notably, in Kᵛārazm; and in Baluchistan and in northwestern India.

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  • GHILAIN, Antoine

    Aloïs van Tongerloo

    In addition to his demanding teaching responsibilities, Ghilain continued with his academic work at the University of Leuven. The commitment documents his intellectual stamina and iron will, as he had to travel by train between La Louvière and Leuven, even in the dark days of World War II when Belgium was under German occupation.

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  • GHIRSHMAN, ROMAN

    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    Ghirshman came from an affluent family in Kharkov and was enlisted in 1914 into the Russian army. In 1917, he joined the counter-revolutionary camp, and after the Communist victory took refuge in Istanbul, where he earned a living as a violinist.

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  • GHURIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    There were at least three raids by the early Ghaznavids into Ḡūr, led by Sultan Maḥmūd and his son Masʿūd, in the first decades of the 11th century; these introduced Islam and brought Ḡūr into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans.

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  • GĪĀH-ŠENĀSĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BOTANICAL STUDIES.

  • GĪĀʾĪ, ḤAYDAR

    Mina Marefat

    or Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou (b. Tehran, 1922; d. Cap d’Antibe, 1985), an influential pioneer of modern architecture in Persia and professor at the University of Tehran. Stylistically, his work was thoroughly “modern,” introducing aspects of the contemporary and International Style architecture of Europe and using new technology and materials such as aluminum.

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  • GĪĀN TAPPA

    Cross-Reference

    See GIYAN TEPE.

  • GĪĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    a Lori dialect. See GĪŌNĪ.

  • GIANTS, THE BOOK OF

    Werner Sundermann

    a book mentioned as a canonical work of Mani in the Coptic Kephalaia, in the Homilies and Psalms, as well as in the Chinese compendium of Mani’s teachings.

  • ḠIĀṮ AL-LOḠĀT

    Solomon Bayevsky

    lit. "Aid in [the explication of] vocabulary," punning on the author’s name; a Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1827 by the linguist, philologist, and poet Moḥammad Ḡiāṯ- al-Din b. Jamāl-al-Din b. Jamāl-al-Din b. Šaraf-al-Din Rāmpuri Moṣṭafā-ābādi.

  • GĪĀṮ BEG, ʿEʿTEMĀD-AL-DAWLA

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    or Gīāṯ-al-Dīn Moḥammad Tehrānī (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN BALBAN

    Cross-Reference

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN DAŠTAKĪ

    Cross-Reference

    (1462-1541), scholar, philosopher, and motakallem (theologian) of the late Timurid and early Safavid period, and, for a brief interval under Shah Ṭahmāsb, one of two ṣadrs (chief clerical overseers). See DAŠTAKI, GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Peter Jackson and Charles Melville

    (d. 1336), Il-khanid vizier, the son of Rašīd-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh Hamadānī (executed 1318), the celebrated historian and vizier of Ḡāzān Khan.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD TEHRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See GĪĀṮ BEG.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN NAQQĀŠ

    Priscilla Soucek

    a painter (naqqāš) active in Herat ca. 1419-30, where he was in the employ of the Timurid Bāysonḡor b. Šāhroḵ.

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Lisa Golombek

    master architect in Khorasan during the reign of the Timurid Šāhroḵ (1405-47).

  • GĪĀṮ-AL-DIN TOḠLOQ

    Cross-Reference

    See DELHI SULTANATE i; TUGHLUQIDS.

  • GĪĀṮVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of the Qazvīn region.

  • GIBB MEMORIAL SERIES

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or GMS; a series of publications, which has continued for almost a century, mainly, but not exclusively, dedicated to editions and translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish texts.

  • GIBBON, EDWARD

    Michael Rogers

    (1737-1794), author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776-88). Relations of Persia and the later steppe nomads with the East Roman/Byzantine empire are an essential component of Gibbon’s celebrated history.

  • GIFT GIVING

    Multiple Authors

    i. Introduction, ii. In Pre-Islamic Persia, iii. In the Medieval Period, iv. In the Safavid Period, v. In the Qajar Period.

  • GIFT GIVING i, ii, iii

    EIr, Josef Wiesehöfer

    in Persia. The following articles constitute a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period.

  • GIFT GIVING iv

    Rudi P. Matthee

    iv. In the Safavid Period.

  • GIFT GIVING v

    Willem Floor

    v. In the Qajar Period.

  • GĪLAKĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪLĀN x. Languages

  • GILĀN

    Multiple Authors

    or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea. 

  • GĪLĀN i. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

    Marcel Bazin

    Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt. To the northwest, the Ṭāleš highlands stretch a continuous watershed separating Gīlān and Azerbaijan.

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  • GĪLĀN ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    The first general census was carried out in 1956 and the sixth in 1996. The geographical boundaries and area have varied from one census to another; at the present time it is 14,819 square kilometers and includes 99 districts, 30 counties and 12 townships. In 1996, there were 2,700 settlements and 35 cities.

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  • GĪLĀN iii. Archeology

    Ezat O. Negahban

    The archeology of Gīlān, particularly in the pre-Islamic period, is usually studied in the wider context of the entire south Caspian region, including Mazandarān and Gorgān. Articles on three important locations, Marlik Tepe, Amlaš, and Deylamān, illustrate the perennial difficulties faced by archeological research in Persia.

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  • GĪLĀN iv. History in the Early Islamic Period

    Wilferd Madelung

    The Gelae (Gilites) seem to have entered the region south of the Caspian coast and west of the Amardos River (later Safīdrūd) in the second or first century B.C.E.

  • GĪLĀN v. History under the Safavids

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    Gīlān has traditionally been considered by its local population as a land of two distinct regions divided by the course of Safīdrūd River.

  • GĪLĀN vi. History in the 18th century

    EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi

    The rapid decline of the Safavids in the first decades of the 18th century, leading to their ultimate demise in 1722, created a general state of chaos in the country.

  • GĪLĀN vii. History in the 19th century

    EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi

    Sealed off by mountains from the rest of the country, political and social life in Gīlān had always been highly influenced, if not determined, by its geographical position. The history of 19th-century Gīlān began with the continuation of the binary division of Bīa-pas and Bīa-pīš and the rule of local families.

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  • GILĀN viiia. In the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11

    Pezhmann Dailami

    Two classes featured prominently in Gilān as the driving forces of the revolution, and the alliance of these two, the peasantry and the urban petty-bourgeoisie of artisans, shopkeepers, and petty traders, was the hallmark of a radical movement on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea.

  • GĪLĀN ix. Monuments

    Manouchehr Sotoudeh

    Most buildings of historical interest in Gilān have been repeatedly repaired and rebuilt throughout their history. Some have clear records of their history, but most of them lack reliable, primary documents, and one has to rely on a variety of indirect evidence, such as the dates engraved on entrance doors or tombstones to reconstruct part of the past of a given edifice.

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  • GĪLĀN x. LANGUAGES

    Donald Stilo

    In Gīlān there are three major Iranian language groups, namely Gīlakī, Rūdbārī, and Ṭālešī, and pockets of two other groups, Tātī and Kurdish. The non-Iranian languages include Azeri Turkish and some speakers of Gypsy (Romany, of Indic origin).

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  • GILĀN xi. Irrigation

    Christian Bromberger

    In the rice-growing regions of the Caspian hinterland, water requirements are considerable and irrigation requires careful organization. It is estimated that one hectare of rice, on average,  requires 12,400 cubic meters of water. To meet this demand various techniques are used, depending on the micro climate of the area and the resources available.

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  • GILĀN xii. Rural Housing

    Christian Bromberger

    In the north of the province, these minimal constructions (wells and rice barns) are traditionally complemented by a covered area for rice threshing, and, in Rašt district, by a separate building for drying paddy, known as a dudḵāna, garmḵāna, or bujḵāna. In the silkworm growing areas, the silkworm nursery occupies a place of honor in the enclosure.

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  • GILĀN xiii. Kinship and Marriage

    Christian Bromberger

    according to a 1991 sample survey, in Iran, the plain of Gilān has the lowest proportion of marriages whether with paternal or maternal cousins or with a near or distant (non-consanguineous) relation. For the whole country, where the average rate of endogamous marriages is 29 percent, it is only 4.2 percent in the district of Āstāna.

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  • GILĀN xiv. Ethnic Groups

    Christian Bromberger

    Each group living in the province is characterized by one or several specific production activities, so that an ethnonym refers as much to territorial, linguistic, and cultural roots as to any dominant professional specialization.

  • GILĀN xv. Popular and Literary Perceptions of Identity

    Christian Bromberger

    In Afghanistan, Uzbeks are called “noodle eaters” by their neighbors and in Persia the Arabs from Khuzestan are stigmatized as susmārḵor “lizard eaters”.

  • GILAN xvi. FOLKLORE

    Christian Bromberger

    Even today, old women believe that cutting down an āzād tree is an act of sacrilege. Whether they are themselves objects of worship or simply grow near the tombs of saints, near cemeteries or inside mosques, these trees are places of devotion, each one dedicated to a specific type of wish (naẕr).

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  • GILAN xvii. Gender Relations

    Christian Bromberger

    In Gilan roles and tasks are distributed according to a more flexible pattern: to a large extent, women take an important part in agricultural work; in their homes, the line between male and female spaces is blurred; craftwork, industrial, and commercial activities are not the exclusive prerogative of men in this region.

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  • GILAN xviii. Rural Production Techniques

    Christian Bromberger

    Chaff produces a great amount of smoke and was once used to punish miscreants or disobedient children who were locked up in the dud otāḡ (literally “smoke room,” where sheaves of rice were dried and cocoons stifled). This punishment was called fal-a dud (“the smoke from the rice chaff”).

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  • GILĀN xix. Landholding and Social Stratification

    Christian Bromberger

    Prior to the Land Reform of 1962 that began the process of land redistribution, the dominant production system in Gilān, as in the majority of Persianprovinces, was of a feudal nature.

  • GILĀN xx. Handicrafts

    Christian Bromberger

    Gilān was a region that produced raw materials (including silk), to which one came for supplies, much more than a region where finished products were made; and the area long remained rural, with only minor importance accorded to towns housing professionals, workshops, and master craftsmen.

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  • GILĀN xxi. Cooking

    Christian Bromberger

    Eating habits and culinary preparations in Gilān have several distinct characteristics. In this rice-producing region, the consumption of rice is much higher than elsewhere in Persia. Garden vegetables and kitchen herbs (sabzi) generally appear in the makeup of most dishes and give the regional cuisine the green touch that is its hallmark.

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  • GĪLĀN NEWSPAPERS

    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of four newspapers published in Rašt.

  • GILANENTZ CHRONICLE

    Ina Baghdiantz McCabe

    a compendium of reports collated as a journal by Petros di Sarkis Gilanentz (Gilanencʿ), which constitutes an important source for the history of events in Transcaucasia and Persia during the period March 1722 to August 1723, notably the Afghan invasion and siege of Isfahan.

  • GĪLĀNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See ONṢOR-AL-MAʿĀLĪ.

  • GĪLĀS

    Cross-Reference

    See CHERRY.

  • ḠILZĪ

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠALZĪ, one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan.

  • GINDAROS

    Erich Kettenhofen

    present-day Jendīres, a town in the ancient region of Cyrrhestike in Syria.

  • GIŌNI

    Colin MacKinnon

    or Giāni; a Persian dialect of the Northern Lor type, spoken in the village of Giān/Giō, 12 km west of the city of Nehāvand.

  • GISTĀN QARA

    Cross-Reference

    b. Jani Beg. See KISTĀN QARĀ b. Jani Beg.

  • GISU-DARĀZ

    Richard M. Eaton

    or Gēsu-darāz (b. Delhi, 1321; d. Gulbarga, 1422), the popular title of Sayyed MOḤAMMAD b. Yusof Ḥosayni, the most important transmitter of Sufi traditions from North India to the Deccan plateau.

  • GITI

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a leftist daily paper published from 24 June 1943 to December 1943 by Ḵalil Enqelāb Āḏar as the official organ of the Workers union.

  • GIV, ROSTAM

    Farhang Mehr

    In 1953, Giv created the Rostam Giv Charitable Foundation for the promotion of the education and welfare of the Zoroastrian community. In the same year, he encouraged his brother’s heirs to endow an elementary school for girls in Tehran. He also built sixty low-rent houses, equipped with modern amenities, for needy Zoroastrians.

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  • GIVA

    Jamshid Sadaqat-Kish

    a traditional footwear in Persia, mainly consisting of an upper part made of twined white cotton thread sewn up on the edges of a cloth and leather or rubber sole. The earliest known mention of the word giva is probably that in the Širāz-nāma (comp. ca. 1333) of Abu’l-ʿAbbās Zarkub Širāzi, where he mentions the bāzār-e giva-duzān (giva-makers’ market) of Shiraz.

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  • GIYAN TEPE

    Ezat O. Negahban

    or GIĀN TAPPA, Žiān Tappa; a large archeological mound located in Lorestān province in western Persia, about 10 km southeast of Nehāvand and southwest of Giān village in the Ḵāva valley.

  • GLACIERS

    Eckart Ehlers

    and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations.

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  • GLADWIN, FRANCIS

    Parvin Loloi

    (d. ca. 1813), lexicographer and prolific translator of Persian literature into English.

  • GLASS

    Jens Kröger

    Glass blowing was invented in the Syro-Palestinian region during the Parthian period in the mid-first century B.C.E. and quickly spread from there to neighboring regions. Production of glass was much more widely spread within the Sasanian empire; it also became in both shapes and types of decoration independent from Parthian prototypes.

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  • GLASS INDUSTRY

    Willem Floor

    Glass making has been known and practiced in Iran for about 3,500 years. Until about 1930 local glass making was done in small craft workshops. The raw materials needed for glass production abound in Iran except for soda ash, but this input will also soon be entirely domestically produced.

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  • GLYPTIC

    Cross-Reference

    See CYLINDER SEALS.

  • GNOSTICISM

    Kurt Rudolph

    in Persia. The current academic term gnosticism or gnosis goes back to the early Christian period and has a heresiological background; its representatives were called Gnostics, meaning people who believed in specific “insights” and ways of behavior that deviated from the official church and its teachings and who disseminated their beliefs through their own writings.

  • GOAT

    Cross-Reference

    See BOZ.

  • GŌBADŠĀH

    D. N. Mackenzie

    the name of a mythical ruler first appearing in medieval Zoroastrianism.

  • ḠOBĀRI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Tahsİn Yazici

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1566), Ottoman poet, calligrapher, and Sufi who wrote in both Turkish and Persian.

  • ḠOBAYRĀ

    A. D. H. Bivar

    medieval township in Kermān province, located at 57° 29 E and 47° N, 70 km by road south of Kermān City (historical Bardsir) at the intersection of the medieval eastern highway and the route from Kermān to Bāft, Esfandaqa, and Jiroft.

  • GOBINEAU, Joseph Arthur de

    Jean Calmard

    Gobineau came from an old and well-established family from Bordeaux. His father Louis (1784-1858), a military officer, was for a time retained in Spain (1823-28), and the son’s education was left to his adventurous mother and her lover, Charles Sottin de la Coindière, who was Arthur’s private tutor.

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  • GÖBL, ROBERT

    Michael Alram

    Gobl's mentor in studying numismatics was Karl Pink, whose methodology had a lasting influence on Göbl’s further academic career. One of Göbl’s most pressing aims was to try out Pink’s structural methodology of the minting of coins in the Roman Empire on other well-defined numismatic complexes.

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  • GOBRYAS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the most widely known (Greek) form of the Old Persian name Gaub(a)ruva, attested for various officers and officials of the Achaemenid period.

  • GOD

    Cross-Reference

    See AHURA MAZDĀ; BAGA.

  • GODARD, ANDRÉ

    Ève Gran-Aymerich and Mina Marefat

    (b. Chaumont, France, 1881; d. Paris, 1965), French architect, archeologist, art historian, and director of the Archeological Services of Iran (Edāra-ye koll-e ʿatiqāt).

  • GŌDARZ

    Mary Boyce, A. D. H. Bivar, A. Shapur Shahbazi

    name of various Iranian historical figures; an Iranian epic hero in wars against the “Turanians” in northeastern Iran; and the scion of a clan of paladins in Iranian traditional history.

  • GODIN TEPE

    T. Cuyler Young, Jr.

    or GOWDIN TEPE; an archeological site in the central Zagros, which was occupied from ca. 5,000 to 500 B.C.E. located at 48° 4′ E and 34° 31′ N in the Kangāvar valley, approximately halfway between Hamadān and Kermānšāh.

  • GOEJE, Michael Jan de

    Cross-Reference

    See DE GOEJE.

  • GOETHE INSTITUTE

    H. E. Chehabi

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Named after the celebrated German poet and writer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), the Goethe Institute was founded in 1951 in Munich as a non-profit organization for training foreign teachers of the German language.

  • GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG von

    Hamid Tafazoli

    (1749-1832), the most renowned poet of German literature, interested in the East and in Islam.

  • ḠOJDOVĀN

    Habib Borjian

    (also Ḡojdavān, Ḡajdovān), town and district in the oasis of Bukhara.

  • ḠOJDOVĀNI

    Cross-Reference

     See ʿABD-AL-ḴĀLEQ ḠOJDOVĀNI.

  • GÖK TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See GEOY TEPE.

  • GOKARN

    Cross-Reference

    See HAOMA.

  • GÖKLEN

    Cross-Reference

    See GUKLĀN.

  • GOL

    Hušang Aʿlam

    or gul; rose (Rosa L. spp.) and, by extension, flower, bloom, blossom.

  • GOL ḴĀNĀN MORDA

    Bruno Overlaet

    Three pit graves, of which one was covered with flat stones, were found underneath the Iron Age III tombs. One contained a button base beaker and two comparable beakers were found between the Iron Age III tombs. This indicates the presence of Iron Age I graves at the site.

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  • GOL O BOLBOL

    Layla S. Diba

    lit. “rose and nightingale,” a popular literary and decorative theme. Together, rose and nightingale are the types of beloved and lover par excellence; the rose is beautiful, proud, and often cruel, while the nightingale sings endlessly of his longing and devotion.

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  • GOL-ĀQĀ

    EIr

    a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990.

  • GOL-E GĀVZABĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See GĀVZABĀN.

  • GOL-E GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    (1895-1985) botanist, musician, poet, scholar, and member of the Farhangestān. See GOL-GOLĀB.

  • GOL-E SORḴI, ḴOSROW

    Cross-Reference

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia. See GOLSORḴI.

  • GOL-E ZARD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    literary, socio-satirical newspaper, published 1918-1924.

  • GOL-GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    H. Ettehad Baboli

    Among Gol-golāb’s best known songs are “Aḏarābādagān” and “Ey Irān”; the latter has become virtually the national anthem of Persia. Gol-golāb also composed Persian lyrics for the music of Georges Bizet’s Carmen and Charles Gounod’s Faust.

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  • GOLĀB

    Hušang Aʿlam

    rose water, a distillate (ʿaraq) obtained chiefly from the gol-e moḥammadi, the best-known product made from rose petals in Persia, widely used in sherbets, sweetmeats, as a home medicament, and on some religious occasions.

  • GOLĀBI

    Cross-Reference

    See PEAR.

  • ḠOLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement; on ḡolāms as military slaves, see BARDA AND BARDA-DĀRĪ.

  • ḠOLĀM ʿABD-AL-QĀDER NAẒIR

    Cross-Reference

    author of Golestān-e nasab. See NAẒIR.

  • ḠOLĀM HAMADĀNI

    Cross-Reference

    author of Taḏkera-ye fārsi and other works. See MOṢḤAFI.

  • ḠOLĀM JILĀNI

    Cross-Reference

    poet and author of Dorr-e manẓum. See RAFʿAT.

  • ḠOLĀM SARVAR

    Arif Naushahi

    b. Mofti Ḡolām Moḥammad LĀHURI (b. Lahore, 1828; d. near Medina, 1890), historian, hagiographer, and poet in Persian and Urdu.

  • ḠOLĀM YAḤYĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI

    Cross-Reference

    See NAQŠBANDI ORDER.

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI KHAN, AMIR TUMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṢĀḤEB(-E) EḴTIĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-E ḴALWAT.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN SEPAHDĀR

    Cross-Reference

    provincial governor and minister of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. See SEPAHDĀR.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṬABĀṬABĀʾI

    Arif Naushahi

    (b. Delhi, 1727-28, d. after 1781), Sayyed, secretary (monši) by profession, political intermediary, and author of a popular history of India called Siar al-motaʾaḵḵerin.

  • ḠOLĀM-REŻĀ ḴOŠNEVIS

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    Eṣfahāni, Mirzā (b. Tehran, 1829/30; d. Tehran, 1886/87), a calligrapher and epigraphist of late 19th-century Persia.

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  • ḠOLĀMĀN-E ḴAṢṢA-YE ŠARIFA

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABBĀS IBARDA and BARDADĀRĪ v.

  • ḠOLĀT

    Heinz Halm

    lit. "exaggerators," sing. ḡāli; an Arabic term originally used by Twelver Shiʿite (eṯnā ʿašariya) heresiographers to designate those dissidents who exaggerate the status of the Imams in an undue manner by attributing to them divine qualities.

  • GOLBADAN BĒGOM

    Munibur Rahman

    (ca. 1522/23-1603), daughter of Ẓahir-al-Din Moḥammad Bābor, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, half sister of Bābor’s successor, Homāyun, and author of Homāyun-nāma, the account of the reign of Homāyun.

  • GOLČIN GILĀNI

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak and Homa Katouzian

    (b. Rašt, 1910; d. London, 1972), pen name of the poet MAJD-AL-DIN MIR-FAḴRĀʾI. Throughout the 1940s, Golčin sent his compositions to Persia for publication; many appeared in the literary journals of the period, such as Soḵan, Yaḡmā, Armaḡān, Foruḡ, Yādgār, and Jahān-e now.

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  • GOLČIN MAʿĀNI, AḤMAD

    Iraj Afshar

    (b. Tehran, 1916; d. Mašhad, 2000), literary scholar, bibliographer, and poet. He held various administrative and judicial posts in the Ministry of Justice (1934-59). His considerable knowledge of literary manuscripts was later put to good use when he was transferred to the Majles Library, where he catalogued the Persian and Arabic manuscripts.

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  • GOLD

    Jennifer C. Ross & James W. Allan

    Persia possesses a number of gold sources—in the northwest (Azerbaijan and Zanjān), near Kāšān at the western edge of the central plateau, and, according to Strabo, in Kermān. Gold sources in Afghanistan are located in Badaḵšān, which is also the source region for lapis lazuli and, possibly, tin. The gold of the Āmu Daryā lies just north of Afghanistan. 

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  • GOLDEN HORDE

    Peter Jackson

    name given to the Mongol Khanate ruled by the descendants of Joči (Juji; d. 1226-27), the eldest son of Čengiz (Genghis) Khan.

  • GOLDSMID, Major-General Sir Fredrick John

    Denis Wright

    (b. Milan, 1818; d. Hammersmith, England, 1909), British scholar, negotiator and arbitrator of Perso-Afghan boundary dispute.

  • GOLESTĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the title of two early 20th-century Persian newspapers.

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE

    Cross-Reference

    See ARG.

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE LIBRARY

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES; ROYAL LIBRARY.

  • GOLESTĀN PROVINCE

    Cross-Reference

    See GORGĀN.

  • GOLESTĀN TREATY

    Elton L. Daniel

    agreement arranged under British auspices to end the Russo-Persian War of 1804-13. The origins of the war can be traced back to the decision of Tsar Paul to annex Georgia (December 1800) and, after Paul’s assassination (11 March 1801), the activist policy followed by his successor, Alexander I.

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  • GOLESTĀN-E HONAR

    Kambiz Eslami

    a 16th-century treatise on the art of calligraphy, with brief biographical notices on a selection of past and contemporary calligraphers and artists, by the Safavid author and historian Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Ḥosayn Monši Qomi Ebrāhimi.

  • GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI

    Franklin Lewis

    probably the single most influential work of prose in the Persian tradition, completed in 1258 by Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ, known as Shaikh Saʿdi of Shiraz.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN GOLESTĀNA.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Mirzā MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    b. Šāh Abu Torāb Moḥammad-ʿAli (d. 1698-99), prominent religious scholar of the Safavid period, a scion of the Golestāna family of Ḥosayni sayyeds in Isfahan.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿALI-AKBAR

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (b. 1857-58; d. 1901), calligrapher, scholar, and mystic of late 19th-century Persia.

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  • GOLGUN, FARID-AL-DAWLA Mirzā MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN HAMADĀNI

    Parviz AḏkāʾI

    (1877-1937), constitutionalist and journalist.

  • GOLHĀ, BARNĀMA-YE

    Daryush Pirnia with Erik Nakjavani

    lit. “Flowers Program”; a series of radio programs on music and poetry, on the air for almost twenty-three years (March 1956 to February 1979), which aimed at illustrating the perennial thematic and aesthetic relationships between poetry and traditional music in Persian culture.

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  • GOLINDUCH

    Sebastian Brock

    or GOLEN-DOḴT (d. 591), female Christian martyr.

  • GOLIUS, JACOBUS

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (b. The Hague, 1596; d. Leiden, 1667), Dutch orientalist who widened the scope of Persian studies, as they had been pursued by Dutch Arabists since the end of the 16th century.

  • GOLKONDA

    Cross-Reference

    See HYDERABAD.

  • GOLPAR

    Hušang Aʿlam

    any of several perennial aromatic herbaceous plants of the genus Heracleum L. (fam. Umbelliferae) growing wild in humid alpine regions in Persia and some adjacent areas.

  • GOLPĀYAGĀN

    Minu Yusofnezhad

    or GOLPĀYEGĀN; a šahrestān (county) and town located in Isfahan province, bordered on the east by the county of Barḵᵛār and Meyma, on the south by Ḵᵛānsār county, on the north by the counties of Maḥallāt and Ḵomeyn (Central province), and on the west by Aligudarz county (province of Lorestān).

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-FAŻL GOLPĀYEGĀNĪ.

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    , Ayatollah Sayyed  (1899-1993), a chief figure in the contemporary Shiʿite clerical hierarchy (marjaʿiyat-e taqlid), who took a moderate stand in the opposition to what was considered the state’s disregard for Islamic principles in the name of modernization.

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  • GOLPĀYEGĀNI DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS.

  • GÖLPINARLI, ABDÜLBAKI

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    (1900-1982), Turkish scholar noted in particular for his studies of the Turkish Sufi orders. He joined many Sufi orders without remaining in any of them for long. His greatest interests were in Shiʿism and the Mevlevi (Mawlawiya) order.

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  • GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    EIr

     or GÜLŞEHRÎ; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish.

  • GOLŠĀʾIĀN, ʿABBĀSQOLI

    Abbas Milani

    After private schooling at home, Golšāʾiān studied at the French-run Alliance Française and at the Dār al-fonun. In 1920, he enrolled in the new law school created by the Ministry of Justice (ʿAdliya). After completing the required courses in two years, he was employed at the same ministry.

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  • GOLŠAN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    cultural magazine published in the early days of 1917 in Tehran by Sayyed Reżā Yazdi “Amir Reżwāni” (d. 1936), first twice a week and from its sixth year three times a week.

  • GOLŠAN ALBUM

    Kambiz Eslami

    or Moraqqaʿ-e golšan; a sumptuous 17th-century album of paintings, drawings, calligraphy, and engravings by Mughal, Persian, Deccani, Turkish, and European artists in the Golestān Palace Library, Tehran.

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  • GOLŠAN DEHLAVI, Shah SAʿD-ALLĀH

    Moinuddin Aqeel

    b. Ḵᵛāja Moḥammad-Saʿid (1664-1728), Naqšbandi Sufi and prolific poet in Persian with the pen name (taḵallosá) Golšan.

  • GOLŠAN-E MORĀD

    John R. Perry

    a history of the Zand Dynasty (1751-94) by Mirzā Moḥammad Abu’l-Ḥasan Ḡaffāri.

  • GOLŠAN-E RĀZ

    Hamid Algar

    lit. "The Rose Garden of Mysteries"; a concise didactic matnawi in a little over a thousand distichs on the key terms and concepts of Sufism, which has for long served as a principal text of theoretical mysticism in the Persian-speaking and Persian-influenced world.

  • GOLŠANI ṢĀRUḴĀNI

    Tahsin Yazici

    a 15th-century Turkish poet who also wrote in Persian.

  • GOLŠANĪ, EBRĀHIM

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Moḥammad b. Ebrāhim b. Šehāb-al-Din (d. 1534), Sufi poet and the founder of the Golšaniya branch of the Ḵalwati Sufi order.

  • GOLŠANI, MOḤYI MOḤAMMAD

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Fatḥ-Allāh b. Abi Ṭāleb (1528/29-1606/7), scholar and author in Persian and Turkish and inventor of an artificial language.

  • GOLŠEHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Sufi and poet in Turkish and Persian. See GÜLŠEHRI.

  • GOLŠIRI, Hušang

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini and EIr

    (b. Isfahan, 1938; d. Tehran, 2000), an innovative novelist who explored new literary techniques with each piece he wrote. He received the Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett award in 1997 via the Human Rights Watch Organization, and in 1999 he was awarded the Osnabrück Peace prize from the Erich Maria Remarque Foundation for his defense of freedom of speech.

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  • GOLSORḴI, ḴOSROW

    Maziar Behrooz

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia.

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  • GŌMAL

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    or Gōmāl:  a sub-province (woloswāli) and village in Paktiā province, eastern Afghanistan; a river originating in the Ḡazni province and flowing southeast through the Wazirestān tribal agency and  the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan; and a passage linking the eastern foothills of the Solaymān mountain range with the Indus plains.

  • GOMBROON

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GOMBROON WARES

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS; ČĪNĪ.

  • GŌMĒZ

    Mary Boyce

    cow's urine.

  • GOMIŠĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a district in Golestān Province. See GORGĀN.

  • GONĀBĀD

    Minu Yusuf-Nežād

    a town and a sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Khorasan.

  • GONĀBĀDI ORDER

    Hamid Algar

    an offshoot of the Neʿmat-Allāhi Sufi order, still active in Persia.

  • GONĀBĀDI, ʿEMĀD-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD

    Shiro Ando

    or Jonābādi, b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin b. Neẓām-al-Din Moḥammad (b. 1415), Timurid financial officer and vizier.

  • GONĀBĀDI, Mirzā ABU’L-QĀSEM QĀSEMI

    Cross-Reference

    poet. See QĀSEMI Gonābādi, Mirzā Abu’l-Qāsem.

  • GONĀBĀDI, MOḤAMMAD PARVIN

    Cross-Reference

    Persian scholar and translator. See PARVIN GONĀBĀDI.

  • GONBAD -E ʿALAWIĀN-E Hamadān

    Cross-Reference

    See HAMADĀN, vii. MONUMENTS.

  • GONBĀD-E KĀVUS

    Cross-Reference

    See GONBAD-E QĀBUS.

  • GONBAD-E QĀBUS

    E. Ehlers, M. Momeni, and EIr, Habib-Allāh Zanjāni, Sheila S. Blair

    (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province (šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012).

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  • GONBAD-E SORḴ

    Marcus Milwright

    the “Red Tomb,” completed on 4 March 1148, the earliest of five medieval mausolea located in Marāḡa in Azerbaijan. It combines elements of the two common forms of Islamic Iranian monumental tomb, the domed cube, and the conically-roofed circular or polygonal tower. 

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  • GONDĒŠĀPUR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi, Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    in the Sasanian epoch, Gondēšāpur was one of the four major cities of Ḵuzestān, the other three being Karḵa, Susa, and Šuštar. The extensive irrigation systems developed there by the early Sasanians were probably aimed at supplying a large population.

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  • GONDOPHARES

    A. D. H. Bivar

    Indo-Parthian king (20-46 C.E.) in Drangiana, Arachosia, and especially in the Punjab.

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  • GŌR

    Cross-Reference

    the historical name for present-day Firuzābād in Fārs. See ARDAŠIR ḴORRA; FIRUZĀBĀD.

  • GŌRĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a tribe in Kurdistan. See GURĀN.

  • GORĀN, ʿABD-ALLĀH SOLAYMĀN

    Keith Hitchins

    (1904-62), the leading Kurdish poet of the twentieth century.

  • GORĀZ

    Cross-Reference

    See BOAR.

  • GORBA

    Cross-Reference

    See CAT I; CAT II.

  • ḠŌRBAND

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠURBAND; a major valley of Kōhestān/Kuhestān and a sub-province (woloswāli) of Parvān province in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush massif, located approximately 50 miles north of Kabul.

  • ḠORBATI

    Cross-Reference

    See GYPSY.

  • GORDĀFARID

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    daughter of Gaždaham, the castellan of Dež-e Sapid, the Iranian fortress on the frontier with Turān.

  • GORDIA

    Cross-Reference

    a female character in the Shah-nama. See BAHRĀM (2) vii. Bahrām VI Čōbīn.

  • GORDIANUS III

    Cross-Reference

    Roman emperor. See SHAPUR I.

  • GORDON, THOMAS EDWARD

    Rose L. Greaves

    , General Sir (1832–1914), British intelligence officer, director of the Imperial Bank of Persia (Bānk-e šāhi-e Irān) from 1893 to 1914, author, and apparently the first person to use the term Middle East, which meant particularly Persia and Afghanistan.

  • GORDUENE

    Cross-Reference

    See KORDUK.

  • GORG

    Cross-Reference

    See WOLF.

  • GORGĀN

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era.

  • GORGĀN BAY

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀD BAY.

  • GORGĀN i. Geography

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea.

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  • GORGĀN ii. Dašt-e Gorgān

    Eckart Ehlers

    the designation of a steppe-region of approximately 10,000 km2 near the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, stretching for almost 200 km east-west between Morāva Tappa and the coast of the Caspian Sea near Gomišān.

  • GORGĀN iii. Population

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    Over the past four decades, the population of Golestān Province as a whole has increased 4.5 times, 8.5 times in the urban and 3.3 times in the rural areas. In the same period, the number of its cities has increased from 5 to 16.

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  • GORGĀN iv. Archeology

    Muhammad Yusof Kiani

    The Greek historian Arrian, recording Alexander’s expedition to the East, speaks of Alexander’s march to the city of Zadracarta, the largest town in the region and the capital of Hyrcania, where the royal palace was situated. It has been suggested that the present city of Gōrgān, formerly Astarābād/Estrābād, could possibly be the ancient Zadracarta.

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  • GORGĀN v. Pre-Islamic history

    A. D. H. Bivar

    The area comprises two distinct climatic zones: the rainforest of the Alborz northern slopes and the Gorgān plain, well-watered and fertile close to the mountains but passing into increasingly desert steppe as the distance from the foothills increases.

  • GORGĀN vi. History From The Rise Of Islam To The Beginning Of The Safavid Period

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    formed in Sasanian and pre-modern Islamic times a transitional zone, a corridor, between the subtropical habitat and climate of Māzandarān to its west, and the arid steppes of Dehestān (q.v.) and, beyond them, the Qara Qum Desert to its northwest.

  • GORGĀN vii. History from the Safavids to the end of the Pahlavi era

    Jawād Neyestāni and EIr

    Two characteristics dominated the history of Gorgān in the period between the 16th and early 19th centuries: incessant tribal unrest and power politics. These features reflected the rather particular tribal structure and the geopolitical situation of this region and its neighboring areas in the north and east.

  • GORGANAJ

    Cross-Reference

    See CHORASMIA.

  • GORGĀNI DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See MĀZANDARĀNI.

  • GORGĀNI, ABU’L-HAYṮAM AḤMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-HAYṮAM GORGĀNI.

  • GORGĀNI, FAḴR-AL-DIN ASʿAD

    Julie Scott Meisami

    (fl. ca. 1050), poet, best known for his verse romance Vis o Rāmin, completed in 1055 or shortly thereafter and dedicated to the Saljuq governor of Isfahan, the ʿAmid Abu’l-Fatḥ Moẓaffar b. Moḥammad.

  • GORGIN

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Milād, one of the heroes of the reigns of Kay Kāvus and Kay Ḵosrow and the head of the Milād family.

  • GORGIN KHAN

    Rudi Matthee

    also known as Giorgio XI and Šāhnavāz Khan II; Georgian prince (d. 1709), who was alternately ruler of Georgia and holder of high positions in the Safavid administration and military.

  • GORJESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See GEORGIA.

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E HADAF

    Cross-Reference

    See HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP.

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E ḴᵛĀRAZMI

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴᵛĀRAZMI SCHOOLS.

  • GORZ

    Jalil Doostkhah

    or gorza, gorz-e gāvsār/sar, lit. "ox-headed club/mace,"  a weapon often mentioned and variously described in Iranian myths and epic. In classical Persian texts, particularly in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, it is characterized as the decisive weapon of choice in fateful battles.

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  • GORZEVĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town in the medieval Islamic region of Guzgān in northern Afghanistan.

  • GŌŠ YAŠT

    W. W. Malandra

    the title of the ninth Yašt of the Avesta, also known as Drwāsp Yašt, after the goddess Druuāspā (see DRVĀSPĀ) to whom, in fact, it is dedicated.

  • GŌSĀN

    Mary Boyce

    a Parthian word of unknown derivation for “poet-musician, minstrel.”

  • GOŠASB BĀNU

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Bānu Gošasb; entitled savār (knight), Rostam’s daughter and the wife of Gēv.

  • GŌSFAND

    Cross-Reference

    See GUSFAND.

  • ḠOSL

    Cross-Reference

    See CLEANSING.

  • GOŠNASP ASPĀD

    Cross-Reference

    Sasanian military commander. See ḴOSROW II.

  • GOSPEL

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • GOSTAHAM

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of two heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

  • GOŠTĀSP

    A. Shapur Shabazi

    Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster.

  • GŌŠURUN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for the soul of the Sole-created Bull.

  • GOTARZES

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO

    Dagmar Riedel

    Gottheil’s tenure at the New York Public Library (NYPL) is of relevance to the field of Iranian studies because he oversaw the development of its Near Eastern and Asian collections, first as Chief of Semitica and Orientalia (1897-1901), and afterwards as Chief of the Oriental Division.

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  • GÖTTINGEN, UNIVERSITY OF, HISTORY OF IRANIAN STUDIES

    Ludwig Paul

    History of Iranian Studies at the University of Göttingen.

  • GOUVEA, ANTONIO DE

    Rudi Matthee

    (b. Beja, Portugal, 1575; d. Manzanares, Spain, 1628), Augustinian missionary and Portuguese envoy who visited Persia three times between 1602 and 1613 and who wrote on Persia.

  • GOVĀḴARZ

    Cross-Reference

    a district in the medieval province of Qohestān in Khorasan. See BĀKARZ.

  • GOWD-E ZEREH

    Cross-Reference

    See HĀMUN;

  • GOWDIN TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    an archeological site in western Persia. See GODIN TEPE.

  • GOWHAR

    Nasereddin Parvin

    a cultural journal published monthly from January 1973 to December 1978 (issue no. 72) of the philanthropic organization of Mortażā Nuriāni.

  • GOWHAR ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a Saljuq princess who became the second wife of the Ghaznavid Sultan Masʿud III (r. 1099-1115).

  • GOWHAR-ĀʾĪN, Saʿd-al-dawla

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 1100), Turkish eunuch slave commander of the Great Saljuqs.

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (1)

    Cross-Reference

    philosopher and poet. See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (2)

    Cross-Reference

    pen name of the 20th-century author Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Sāʿedi. See SA'EDI, GHOLAM-HOSAYN.

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD ĀḠĀ

    Beatrice Forbes Manz

    wife of Sultan Šāhroḵ b. Timur (r. 1409-47) and daughter of Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Tarḵān, a ranking amir under Timur.

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD MOSQUE

    Lisa Golombek

    constructed in the early 15th century, the Friday mosque for pilgrims to the tomb of Imam ʿAli al-Reżā in Mašhad, so named after this famous shrine.

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  • GOWHARIN, SAYYED SĀDEQ

    Peter Avery

    Gowharin came from an old and distinguished family which traced its lineage back to the eponymous founder of the Nurbaḵšiyya, Sayyed Moḥammad Nurbaḵš (1392-1464). Himself a Sufi of the Ḵāksār order, his interest in mysticism went far beyond that of an academic.

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  • GOWJA FARANGI

    Cross-Reference

    See TOMATO.

  • GOWRAK

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in northwestern Persia.

  • GOWZ

    Cross-Reference

    See WALNUT.

  • GŌZEHR

    Cross-Reference

    Bazarangid ruler in Fārs. See ARDAŠĪR I.

  • GŌZIHR

    D. N. Mackenzie

    the Middle Persian development of an old Iranian compound adjective *gau-čiθra-, recorded in the Younger Avesta in the form gaočiθra-, as an epithet of the moon, “bearing the seed, having the origin of cattle” (or, “the ox”).

  • ḠOZZ

    Peter B. Golden, C. Edmund Bosworth

    a significant Turkic tribe in western Eurasia in the 5th century.

  • GRAND LODGE OF IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See FREEMASONRY, iii-iv.

  • GRANICUS

    Ernst Badian

    river (mod. Kocabaş Çay) flowing into the Sea of Marmara.

  • GRANT DUFF, Sir EVELYN MOUNTSTUART

    Denis Wright

    (b. 1863; d. Bath, 1926), British diplomat serving successively in Rome, Tehran, St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Berlin, then London.

  • GRANT, Captain NATHANIEL PHILIP

    Denis Wright

    (b. New York, 1774; k. Ḵorramābād, 1810), a military officer of the East India Company.

  • GRANTOVSKIĬ, EDVIN ARVIDOVICH

    Mohammad Dandamayev

    Grantovskiĭ specialized in the history of ancient Iranian tribes (especially the Medes, Persians and Scythians) and their civilizations. His research was based on Akkadian and Urartian inscriptions, Iranian texts of various periods, and classical sources as well as on the data and evidence of archaeology, ethnography, and folklore.

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  • GRAPES

    Cross-Reference

    See ANGŪR.

  • GRAPHIC ARTS

    Mortażā Momayyez, Peter Chelkowski

    Broadly speaking, graphic art and design have a long history in Persia; their antecedents can be seen in graphic motifs and patterns on ancient clay and metal vessels, stone reliefs, seals, brickwork, glazed tiles, plaster and wood carvings, cloths, carpets, marquetry, miniature paintings, calligraphy, and illumination of manuscripts.

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  • GRAY, BASIL

    John Michael Rogers

    Gray's initiation into eastern art, for which there was then no provision at any British university, came in 1928, when he worked for a season on the excavations at the great palace of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople, followed by study in Vienna under Josef Strzygowski, who was, however, already sunk deep in diffusionism.

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  • GRAY, LOUIS HERBERT

    William W. Malandra

    In 1921 Gray was appointed associate professor of philology at the University of Nebraska, where he remained until his appointment at Columbia University as professor of Oriental Languages in 1926. In 1935, he became Professor of Comparative Linguistics, a position he held until his retirement in 1944.

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  • GREAT BRITAIN

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Introduction, ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present, iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21, v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41, vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79, vii. British Travelers to Persia, viii. British Archeological Excavations, ix. Iranian Studies in Britian, Pre-Islamic, x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period, xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain, xii. The Persian Community in Britain, xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies, xv. British Schools in Persia.

  • GREAT BRITAIN i. INTRODUCTION

    EIr

    During the 16th century, several unsuccessful attempts were made by the Muscovy (or Russia) Company of London to develop trade between London and Persia via Russia.

  • GREAT BRITAIN ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present

    Denis Wright

    Prior to the Safavid period, contacts between Britain and Persia were confined to the 13th century, and were infrequent and of short duration.

  • GREAT BRITAIN iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century

    Abbas Amanat

    British imperial interests in Persia in the Qajar period were primarily determined by the concern for the security of colonial India and, secondarily, by trade, telegraphic communication, and financial or other conces-sionary agreements.

  • GREAT BRITAIN iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21

    Mansour Bonakdarian

    In the late 1890s, the Foreign Office in London came to regard Germany as the main threat to the European balance of power and British imperial hegemony around the globe.

  • Great Britain v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41

    Stephanie Cronin

    During the reign of Reżā Shah (1925-1941) a profound transformation took place in both the character and the scope of British influence in Persia.

  • Great Britain vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    For the greater part of the Qajar era (1796-1924) Persia was the scene of intense rivalry between the Russian and British empires.

  • Great Britain vii. British Travelers to Persia

    Denis Wright

    The British, more than any others, have been prolific authors of travelogues, and memoirs about Persia.

  • Great Britain viii. British Archeological Excavations

    St. J. Simpson

    excavations began in Persia before the so-called “French monopoly” on archeological excavations.

  • Great Britain ix. Iranian Studies in Britain, Pre-Islamic

    A. D. H. Bivar

    Several fields of pre-Islamic Iranian Studies have seen great expansion during recent centuries, and to these, scholars and travelers from Great Britain have made substantial contributions.

  • Great Britain x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period

    Charles Melville

    British interest in, and scholarship on, Persia and Persian culture in the Islamic period goes back to the first formal contacts between the two countries, that is, at least to the 16th century and the growth of Britain’s involvement in the Levant and East Indian trades.

  • Great Britain xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain

    J. Michael Rogers

    The collecting of Persian art in Great Britain goes back at least to the missions despatched by the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I (1588-1629) and the activities of the Sherley brothers at his court in Isfahan. The early 17th century also saw the growth of trade with Persia through the East India Company.

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  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (1)

    Kathryn Spellman

    This entry will be treated in two separate articles: (1) Persian Community and (2) The Library for Iranian Studies.

  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (2)

    Namdar Baghaei-Yazdi

    The Library for Iranian Studies in London was opened to members on 16 November 1991 and at that time the library consisted of a collection of 2,500 books and other publications.

  • Great Britain xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

    F. Safiri and H. Shahidi

    In the late 1930s, the British Government began to fund BBC broadcasts in languages other than English designed to counter anti-British broadcasts from Germany and Italy. The first were  in Arabic, in January 1938, followed by Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America in March. Persian broadcasts followed  in December 1940.

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  • Great Britain xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies

    D. Stronach

    was founded in the spring of 1961, thanks to the vision and commitment of a small group of scholars in Britain, each of whom had a special interest in the arts and letters of Persia.

  • Great Britain xv. British Schools in Persia

    Gulnar E. Francis-Dehqani

    This article will outline the major educational efforts of the British missionaries in Persia from 1871. The British schools in Persia were primarily founded by missionary organizations, most notably the Church Missionary Society (CMS).

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  • Greece

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Greco-Persian Political Relations, ii. Greco-Persian Cultural Relations, iii. Persian Influence on Greek Thought, iv. Greek Influence on Persian Thought, v. Greek Influence on Philosophy, vi. The Image of Persia and Persians in Greek Literature, vii. Greek Art and Architecture in Iran, viii. Greek Art in Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Northwest India, ix. Greek and Persian Romances, x. Greek Medecine in Persia, xi. Greek Inscriptions in Iran, xii. Persian Loanwords and Names in Greek, xiii. Greek Loanwords in Middle Iranian Languages, xiv. Greek Loanwords in Medieval New Persian, xv. Ancient Greek borrowings of Perisan herbs and plants of medicinal value.

  • Greece i. Greco-Persian Political Relations

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    After subjugating the Medes, Cyrus II started his first expedition westwards. In 547 B.C.E. he turned against Lydia and its king, Croesus.

  • Greece ii. Greco-Persian Cultural Relations

    Margaret C. Miller

    This article is addresses the evidence for receptivity to Persian culture in Greece, the North Aegean, and West Anatolia, including receptivity on the part of the non-Greek peoples of these regions.

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  • Greece iii. Persian Influence on Greek Thought

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    The idea of Iranian origins of Greek philosophy had a legendary aura, either by declaring that Pythagoras had been Zoroaster’s pupil in Babylon, or by writing, as did Clement of Alexandria, that Heraclitus had drawn on “the barbarian philosophy.”

  • Greece iv. Greek Influence on Persian Thought

    Mansour Shaki

    After the conquest of Ionia, Lydia, and other regions of Asia Minor by Cyrus II, the Persians came into close contact with the Hellenes, their skilled artisans, renowned physicians, artists, statements, men-of-arms, and the like.

  • Greece v - vi. The Image of Persia and Persians in Greek Literature

    Reinhold Bichler and Robert Rollinger

    The image of Persia in Greek literature is highly stylized and may not be considered as a reflection of actually experienced cultural contacts.

  • GREECE vii. GREEK ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN IRAN

    Rémy Boucharlat

    The influx of elements of Greek art into Persia during the Achaemenid period was primarily the result of the importation of artists and artisans from Hellenized Asia Minor and rarely due to a direct supply of objects.

  • Greece viii. Greek Art in Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Northwest India

    Claude Rapin

    The emergence of Greek art as a phenomenon following the expedition of Alexander the Great was a major cultural event in Central Asia and India. Its effects were felt for almost a thousand years, down to the early Islamic period.

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  • GREECE xvi. Greek Ideas and Sciences in Sasanian Iran

    Phillipe Gignoux

    The arrival of Greek ideas and sciences in Iran have been traced through translated texts.  However, there are allusions and references that we can glean from Pahlavi literature, and on occasion in longer passages where the closely related medical and philosophical theories of the ancient East indicate their origins in Greek or Indian civilization. Some of these references go back as far as the Achaemenid period too.

  • Greece ix. Greek and Persian Romances

    Richard Davis

    Three Persian verse romances of the 11th century stand out as significantly unlike other Persian verse romances, and they share enough features with the Greek Hellenistic Romances to suggest the existence of links between the two sets of tales.

  • GREECE x. GREEK MEDICINE IN PERSIA

    Gül Russell

    The question of Greek medicine in Iran is closely bound up with the history of Greco-Arabic medicine, which developed with the impetus of the “translation movement” between the 8th and the 10th centuries.

  • Greece xi - xii. Persian Loanwords and Names in Greek

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    The Greeks came into direct contact with speakers of Iranian languages when Cyrus II conquered the Lydian empire in 547 B.C.E. However, the possibility of linguistic borrowings in prehistoric times cannot be ruled out.

  • Greece xiii. Greek Loanwords in Middle Iranian Languages

    Philip Huyse

    The number of loanwords borrowed from Greek into the pre-Islamic Iranian languages is far less impressive than the number of borrowings in the other direction.

  • Greece xiv. Greek Loanwords in Medieval New Persian

    Lutz Richter Bernburg and EIr

    In the Islamic period, Persian learned literature was largely modelled upon Arabic antecedents and that these, whether  translations from Greek or Arabic originals, strove to minimize foreign and unfamiliar-sounding vocabulary.

  • GREECE xv. Ancient Greek borrowings of Perisan herbs and plants of medicinal value

    Luigi Arata

    It is well attested that the ancient Greek city-states (poleis) and the Persian Empire had continuous commercial contact which influenced the ordinary life of both parties.

  • GRIBOEDOV, ALEXANDER SERGEEVICH

    George Bournoutian

    After graduating from Moscow University with a degree in literature and law, Griboedov first joined the military and then the diplomatic service. Griboedov joined the Russian administration in Transcaucasia in early 1819 and was sent by the Chief Administrator, General Ermolov, to Persia to establish the Russian Mission in Tehran.

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  • GRIGORIAN, Marcos

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    (Mārcos [better known as Marco] Grigoriān, b. Kropotkin, Russia, 5 December 1925; d. Yerevan, 27 August 2007), Iranian-Armenian artist, actor, teacher, gallery owner, and collector who played a pioneering role in the development of Iranian modern art.

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  • GRĪW

    Werner Sundermann

    a Middle Iranian word meaning “neck, throat” and “self, soul.”

  • GROTEFEND, GEORG FRIEDRICH

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (b. Hannoversch-Münden, 1775; d. Hannover, 1853), German philologist and scholar of oriental studies.

  • GROUSSET, RENÉ

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (b. Aubais, Gard, France, 1885; d. Paris, 1952), French historian who based his wide-ranging research on the studies of the leading French orientalists of his time, and wrote works of synthesis on various aspects of Oriental history and culture.

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  • GRUMBATES

    Cross-Reference

    See CHIONITES.

  • GRUNDRISS DER IRANISCHEN PHILOLOGIE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Encyclopaedia of Iranian Philology; Strassburg, 1895-1904, reprinted Berlin and New York, 1974), the first attempt to summarize the knowledge of all subjects concerning Iran — the languages and literatures, history and culture of Iran and the Iranian peoples — that had been achieved by the end of the 19th century.

  • GRÜNWEDEL, ALBERT

    Werner Sundermann

    (b. Munich, 1856; d. Lenggries, 1935), prominent German Indologist, Tibetologist, art scholar, and archeologist.

  • GRYUNBERG TSVETINOVICH, ALEKSANDR LEONOVICH

    Vladmir Kushev

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1930; d. St. Petersburg, 1995), Russian linguist who specialized in Iranian languages.

  • GUARDIAN COUNCIL

    A. Schirazi

    or Šurā-ye Negahbān; a powerful 12-member council with vast legislative and executive jurisdictions that forms a cornerstone of the Islamic Republic’s Constitution.

  • GUBARU

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Babylonian rendering of the Iranian name Gaub(a)ruva, which is best known in the Greek form Gōbryas.

  • GUDARZ

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GUEVREKIAN, GABRIEL

    Mina Marefat

    (b. Istanbul, 1900; d. 1970), Armenian avant-garde architect, an influential figure in the development of modern architecture in Persia, linking Persian architects with Europe’s pioneers of the modern movement.

  • GUIDI, IGNAZIO

    Erich Kettenhofen

    For Iranian studies, Guidi’s most valuable discovery was the chronicle of an anonymous Nestorian Christian written in Syriac, usually referred to as Guidi’s Chronicle, which he presented at the 8th International Congress of Orientalists (and translated into Latin in 1903).

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  • GUIDI’S CHRONICLE

    Sebastian P. Brock

    an anonymous, 7th-century chronicle of Nestorian Christians, known also as “the Khuzistan Chronicle,” written in Syriac and covering the period from the reign of the Sasanian Hormizd/Hormoz IV (579-89) to the middle of the 7th century and the time of the early Arab conquests.

  • GUILDS

    Cross-Reference

    See AṢNĀF; CHAMBER OF GUILDS; CHAMBER OF COMMERCE; BĀZĀR iii.

  • GUILLEMIN, MARCELLE

    Anne Draffkorn Kilmer

    Duchesne-Guillemin was one of the early investigators of the reconstruction of ancient Babylonian musical scales and music theory. She was the first scholar to explore and explain the musicological significance of the sequence of number-pairs of musical strings in a cuneiform text of the first millennium B.C.E. excavated at the archaeological site of Nippur in southern Iraq.

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  • GUJARAT

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    (Skt. Gurjaṛ), a province of India on its northwestern coastline.

  • GUJARATI

    K. M. Jamaspasa

    or Gojarati; the mother tongue of Gujaratis, which has been for centuries a vehicle of thought and expression for Hindus, Parsis, and Muslims of Gu-jarat in western India.

  • GUJASTAG ABĀLIŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABĀLIŠ.

  • GUKLĀN

    Pierre Oberling

    Turkmen tribal confederacy of the Gorgān region in northeastern Persia, the district of Qara Qalʿa in Turkmenistan, and the Ḵiva region in Uzbekistan.

  • ḠUL

    Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar

    designation of a fantastic, frightening creature in the Perso-Arabic lore.

  • GULBARGA

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    or Golbargā; city and district in the central Deccan, India.

  • GULF WAR and PERSIA

    Lawrence G. Potter

    the final conflict, which was initiated with United Nations authorization, by a coalition force from 34 nations against Iraq, with the expressed purpose of expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait after its invasion and annexion on 2 August 1990.

  • GUMĒZIŠN

    D. N. Mackenzie

    a Middle Persian noun, spelled gwmycšn in Pahlavi and gwmyzyšn in Manichean script, meaning “mixing, mingling, mixture.”

  • GÜNDÜZLÜ

    Cross-Reference

    See TURKIC TRIBES.

  • GUNPOWDER

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRUT.

  • GUNS, GUNNERY

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRUT; FIREARMS.

  • GUR

    Cross-Reference

    See ARDAŠIR ḴORRA, FIRUZĀBĀD.

  • ḠUR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a region of central Afghanistan, essentially the modern administrative province (welāyat) of Ḡōrāt.

  • GUR-E AMIR

    Cross-Reference

    See SAMARQAND.

  • GUR-E DOḴTAR

    cross-reference

    See BOZPĀR.

  • GURĀN

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribe dwelling in the dehestān of Gurān, between Qaṣr-e Širin and Kermānšāh (Bāḵtarān), in Kurdistan.

  • GURĀNI

    D. N. Mackenzie

    comprises a group of similar North-west Iranian dialects which includes that of Kandula, 25 miles north-north-west of Kermānšāh, and Bāǰalānī, in the region around Zohāb and Qaṣr-e Šīrīn, with an offshoot among the Šabak, Ṣārlī, and Bāǰalān (Bēǰwān) villages east of the city of Mosul in Iraq.

  • GURDZIECKI, BOGDAN

    Rudi Matthee

    known in Persia as Bohtam Beg; Polish envoy of Georgian-Armenian origin and first permanent Polish resident in Safavid Persia (d. Moscow, 1700).

  • ḠURIĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See FUŠANJ.

  • GURKHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See QARA ḴETĀY; CENTRAL ASIA; TITLE OF RULERS.

  • GURUMU

    Cross-Reference

    See BĒṮ GARMĒ.

  • GUŠA

    Jean During

    lit. "corner" or "part"; a term in Persian music designating a unit of melody of variable importance, which occupies a special place in the development of one of the twelve modal systems (dastgāh or āvāz).

  • GUSAN

    Cross-Reference

    See EPICS.

  • GUSFAND

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    sheep, ovine.

  • GUŠYĀR GILĀNI, ABU’L-ḤASAN B. LABBĀN

    David Pingree

    Arabicized Kušyār; an astronomer and mathematician from Gilān, whence his nesba Jili/Gilāni (fl. late 10th-early 11th cent.).

  • GUTIANS

    Marc Van De Mieroop

    name used in ancient Mesopotamian texts to refer to a variety of people, mostly from the Zagros mountain area.

  • GUTSCHMID, HERMANN ALFRED FREIHERR VON

    Ronald E. Emmerick

    (b. Loschwitz near Dresden, 1831; d. Tübingen, 1887), classical scholar and ancient historian with a special interest in the Ancient Near East.

  • GÜYÜK KHAN

    Peter Jackson

    (r. 1246-48), Mongol great khan (qaḡan), given posthumously the regnal title Ting-tsung.

  • GUZAŠTAG ABĀLIŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABĀLIŠ.

  • GUZGĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a district of what was in early Islamic times eastern Khorasan, now roughly corresponding to the northwest of modern Afghanistan, adjacent to the frontier with the southeastern fringe of the Turkmenistan Republic. See JOWZJĀN.

  • GWĀTI

    Cross-Reference

    See BALUCHISTAN.

  • GYMNASTICS IN PERSIA

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GYPSUM

    Dietrich Huff

    soft mineral produced from natural gypsum rock by firing in kilns or piles and subsequent pulverization by pounding and grinding.

  • GYPSY

    Jean-Pierre Digard, Gernot L. Windfuhr

    generally referred to by the term kowli in Persian, seemingly a distortion of kāboli, that is, coming from Kabol, the capital of Afghanistan. It is not at all certain, however, that all the groups referred to as kowli are authentic gypsies; nor that only the groups referred to as kowli should be considered as gypsies.

  • GYPSY i. Gypsies of Persia

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    Almost everywhere in Persia there are groups with characteristics similar to those of the Gypsies, but they are called by different names, sometimes designating their geographic or ethnic origin, sometimes their social status, and sometimes their profession.

  • GYPSY ii. Gypsy Dialects

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    The languages and dialects popularly called “Gypsy” (< Egipcien < qebṭi “Coptic, Egyptian”) constitute three major groups: Asiatic or Middle Eastern Domari, Armenian Lomavren, and European Romani.

  • G~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter G entries.