Table of Contents

  • ḠAZAL i. HISTORY

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    The basic meaning of the word in Arabic is “spinning.” At a very early stage, the figurative sense of “having amorous talks with women, flirting” must have led to the association with erotic poetry.

  • ḠAZAL ii. CHARACTERISTICS AND CONVENTIONS

    Ehsan Yarshater

    The Persian ḡazal, especially the Hafezian and the post-Hafezian, does not usually follow a sustained narrative, but consists of a number of lines and statements largely independent of each other.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ MAŠHADĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    (b. Mašhad, 1526-27, d. Ahmadabad, 1572), poet laureate in Persian (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD

    Multiple Authors

    b. Moḥammad Ṭūsī (1058-1111), one of the greatest systematic Persian thinkers of medieval Islam and a prolific Sunni author on the religious sciences (Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and mysticism) in Saljuq times. Overview of entry: i. Biography, ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat, iv. Minor Persian works, v. As a Faqīh, vi. Ḡazālī and Theology, vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic Thought.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD i

    Gerhard BÖWERING

    (variant name Ḡazzālī; Med. Latin form, Algazel; honorific title, Ḥojjat-al-Eslām"The Proof of Islam”), born at Ṭūs in Khorasan in 450/1058 and grew up as an orphan together with his younger brother Aḥmad Ḡazālī (d. 520/1126; q.v.).

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, ii, iii

    W. Montgomery Watt

    ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat. 

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, iv

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    iv. Minor Persian works.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, v

    Wael B. Hallaq

    v. As a Faqīh.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vi

    Michael E. Marmura

    vi. Ḡazālī and Theology.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vii, viii

    Wilferd Madelung

    vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic thought.