Table of Contents
J. T. P. de Bruijn
The basic meaning of the word in Arabic is “spinning.” At a very early stage, the figurative sense of “having amorous talks with women, flirting” must have led to the association with erotic poetry.
The Persian ḡazal, especially the Hafezian and the post-Hafezian, does not usually follow a sustained narrative, but consists of a number of lines and statements largely independent of each other.
(b. Mašhad, 1526-27, d. Ahmadabad, 1572), poet laureate in Persian (malek-al-šoʿarāʾ) at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar.
b. Moḥammad Ṭūsī (1058-1111), one of the greatest systematic Persian thinkers of medieval Islam and a prolific Sunni author on the religious sciences (Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and mysticism) in Saljuq times. Overview of entry: i. Biography, ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat, iv. Minor Persian works, v. As a Faqīh, vi. Ḡazālī and Theology, vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic Thought.
(variant name Ḡazzālī; Med. Latin form, Algazel; honorific title, Ḥojjat-al-Eslām"The Proof of Islam”), born at Ṭūs in Khorasan in 450/1058 and grew up as an orphan together with his younger brother Aḥmad Ḡazālī (d. 520/1126; q.v.).
W. Montgomery Watt
ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat.
iv. Minor Persian works.
Wael B. Hallaq
v. As a Faqīh.
Michael E. Marmura
vi. Ḡazālī and Theology.
vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic thought.