Table of Contents

  • GABAE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the name of two places in Persia and Sogdiana.

  • GABAIN, ANNEMARIE VON

    Peter Zieme

    Von Gabain was particularly interested in the question of the extent to which the religious ideas of the Central Asian peoples had been influenced by Zoroastrianism or other Iranian beliefs, and this perspective is reflected in several of her publications.

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  • GABBA

    Jean-Pierre Digard and Carol Bier

    a hand-woven pile rug of coarse quality and medium size (90 × 150 cm or larger) characterized by an abstract design that relies upon open fields of color and a playfulness with geometry. This kind of rug is common among the tribes of the Zagros (Kurdish, Lori-speaking ethnic groups, Qašqāʾīs).

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  • GABR

    Mansour Shaki

    a New Persian term used from the earliest period as a technical term synonymous with mōḡ (magus). With the dwindling of the Zoroastrian community,  the term came to have a pejorative implication.

  • GABRA

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌR.

  • GABRI WARE

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS.

  • GABRIEL, ALFONS

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GABRIELI, FRANCESCO

    Giuliano Lancioni

    The significance of Gabrieli’s contribution was widely recognized. He was a national member of Accademia dei Lincei since 1957 and served as its president in the years 1985-88; from 1968 to 1977 he was president of Istituto per l’Oriente.

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  • GAČ

    Cross-Reference

    See GYPSUM.

  • GAČ-BORĪ

    Sheila S. Blair

    plasterwork or stucco. Gypsum plaster has been used as a building material in Persia for more than 2,500 years. Originally it may have been applied as a rendering to mud brick walls to protect them from the weather, but it was soon exploited for its decorative effects.

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  • GAČSAR

    Minu Yusof Nezhad

    a village in the Karaj district, situated at an altitude of 2,210 m at 110 km northwest of Tehran and 7 km south of the Kandavān Tunnel on the main road to the Caspian coast.

  • GAČSĀRĀN

    Eckart Ehlers

    town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia.

  • GADĀʾĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BEGGING.

  • GÄDIATỊ (SEḰAYỊ FỊRT) COMAQ

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (1883-1931), Ossetic writer.

  • ḠADĪR ḴOMM

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    lit. “pool of Ḵomm”; the name of a pool near a small oasis along the caravan route between the cities of Mecca and Medina, near an area currently known as Joḥfa.

  • GADŌTU

    Cross-Reference

    a demon. See UDA.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, FARROḴ KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    Kambiz Eslami

    Following in the footsteps of his father, GOLAM-HOSAYN KHANG AFFARI began his career as one of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal pages. He had already received the title amīn(-e) ḵalwat when he accompanied the shah on his second journey to Khorasan in 1883. His promotion to the position of chief musketeer in 1883-84 was followed by two other appointments.

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  • ḠAFFARĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    a prominent Qajar painter. See KAMĀL-AL-MOLK.

  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, MOḤAMMAD-EBRĀHĪM KHAN

    Kambiz Eslami

    MOHAMMAD-EBRAHIM KHAN GAFFARI was the son of Farroḵ Khan Amīn-al-Dawla (q.v.), a high-ranking Qajar official. He spent his early years in the inner circle of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s court and then traveled to Europe to continue his education. In 1891 he received the title Moʿāwen-al-Dawla, and was named the head of the Commerce Court and deputy minister of justice.

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  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    Kambiz Eslami

    NEZAM-AL-DIN GAFFARI was among the entourage of both Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah and Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah when they were touring Europe, during which he received a variety of decorations from European governments. In his later years, Ḡaffārī held several important positions, including the minister of mines, the minister of public services, and minister of education.

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  • ḠAFFĀRĪ, ṢANĪʿ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ.

  • GAFUROV, BOBODZHAN GAFUROVICH

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    (1908-1977), Tajik statesman, academician, and historian. His energy and administrative skills were instrumental in establishing Tajikistan’s first State University in 1948, and in inaugurating its national Academy of Sciences in 1951. In spite of his many administrative duties, he published more than 500 works in Russian, Tajik, and other languages.

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  • GAGIK

    Cross-Reference

    See ARTSRUNI and BAGRATIDS.

  • GĀH

    Mary Boyce

    a Middle Persian, Parthian, and New Persian word meaning either “place” or “time.”

  • GĀH-ŠOMĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See CALENDARS.

  • GĀHAMBĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See GĀHĀNBĀR.

  • GĀHĀNBĀR

    Mary Boyce

    Middle Persian name for the feasts held at the end of each of the six seasons of the Zoroastrian year.

  • GAHĪZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Kabul from January 1968 to April 1973, owned, edited, and published by Menhāj-al-Dīn Gahīz (1922-73), who was apparently assassinated by Soviet agents.

  • GALBANUM

    Hushang Aʿlam

    There has been confusion or uncertainty about the nature (color, taste, odor, medicinal properties) of galbanum, about the plants involved, and the latter’s habitats. The confusion has resulted mainly from the more or less similarity of galbanum to other resins yielded by some other umbelliferous plants, e.g., sagapenum, asafetida, opopanax, and komā.

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  • ḠĀLEB DADA, MOḤAMMAD ASʿAD

    Tahsın Yazici

    also known as Mehmed Esad Galib Dede, Shaikh Ḡāleb, or Şeyh Galib (b. Istanbul, 1757; d. Galata, 1799) poet in Turkish and Persian.

  • ḠĀLEB, Mīrzā ASAD-ALLĀH Khan

    Munibur Rahman

    (b. Agra, 1797; d. Delhi, 1869), one of the greatest poets of Muslim India who wrote poems in both Persian and Urdu.

  • GALEN

    Cross-Reference

     See JĀLINUS.

  • GALERIUS

    Cross-Reference

    See NARSEH.

  • GĀLEŠĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪLĀN x. LANGUAGES

  • GALĪN QAYA

    Cross-Reference

    dialect. See HARZANDĪ.

  • GALLIMARD PRESS

    Cross-Reference

    See PUBLISHING HOUSES.

  • ḠALYĀN

    Shahnaz Razpush and EIr

    or QALYĀN (nargileh); a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco. It is composed of several parts: the bādgīr (chimney); sar-e ḡālyān or sarpūš (the top bowl; sar-ḵāna in Afghanistan); tana (the body); mīlāb (the immersion pipe); ney-e pīč (hose); and kūza (the reservoir of water).

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  • ḠALZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠILZĪ.

  • ḠAMĀM HAMADĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠEMĀM HAMADĀNĪ.

  • GAMASĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴA RIVER, forthcoming online.

  • GAMBRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GAMBRON

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GAMES

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZĪ.

  • GAN(N)ĀG MĒNŪG

    Cross-Reference

    See AHRIMAN.

  • GANĀVA

    Minu Yusofnezhad

    county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr.

  • GANDĀPŪR

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    one of two Šērānī Pashtun/Paxtun tribal segments (the other being the Baḵtīār), who claim origin in southwestern Afghanistan.

  • GANDĀPŪR, ŠĒR MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    b. Mehrdād Khan b. Āzād Khan, author of the Persian Tawārīḵ-e ḵoršīd-e jahān, an important chronicle containing genealogical accounts and tables of Pashtun/Paxtun tribal groups.

  • GAṆDARƎBA

    Antonio Panaino

    (Mid. Pers. Gandarw/Gandarb), a term attested the Avesta as the name of a monster living in the lake Vourukaṧa.