Table of Contents

  • FLAGS

    Multiple Authors

    This article is meant to supplement earlier entries on Iranian vexillology (see ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT, BANNERS, and DERAFŠ).

  • FLAGS i. Of Persia

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The earliest-known representation of lion and sun as a banner device is a miniature painting illustrating a copy, dated 1423, of the Šāh-nāma of Šams-al-Dīn Kāšānī—an epic composition on the Mongol conquest. A similar early depiction is on a large, double-paged miniature dated ca. 1460.

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  • FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

    Habib Borjian

    Nāder Shah’s (1929-33) policy of moderate reforms was reflected in the flag he reportedly used when he seized power—the tricolor flag introduced by Amān-Allāh; it was soon modified as a bound sheaf of wheat circling a stylized mosque, which recalls the mausoleum of Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī.

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  • FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

    Habib Borjian

    On 28 April 1929, the constitution of the Tajik ASSR adopted a state arms and flag. The arms consisted of a hammer (bālḡa) and local sickle (dās) symbol against a star, which depicts a blue sky brightened by golden rays of sun rising above snowy mountains. The star is encircled on each side by wreaths of wheat and cotton.

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  • FLANDIN AND COSTE

    Jean Calmard

    Eugène Flandin was the son of Jean-Baptiste Flandin, an intendant in Napoléon’s armies. Little is known about his mother Marie-Agnès Durand. Eugène’s early years were linked with his father’s tumultuous career. He was only two years old when his family returned from Naples, where his father had been assigned since 1807, serving with Murat.

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  • FLANDIN, Eugène Napoléon Jean-Baptiste

    Cross-Reference

    (1809-1889), French orientalist, painter, archeologist, and politician, famous for the illustrated account of his travels in Persia. See FLANDIN AND COSTE.

  • FLOODS

    Eckart Ehlers, Charles Melville

    (sayl, sayl-āb) in Persia. i. Geographical survey. ii. Historical survey. Surplus or deficit of water, mainly caused by Persia’s topography, undergoes seasonal variations with decisively stronger precipitation during the winter months, which explains why floods occur predominantly during these periods.

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  • FLORA

    Multiple Authors

    i. Historical Background. ii. In Persia. iii. In Afghanistan

  • FLORA i. Historical Background

    Karl Hummel

    The indigenous knowledge of plants in Persia had a long standing tradition before the country’s flora was explored by Europeans, who were eventually joined in modern scientific botany by Persian botanists.

  • FLORA ii. IN PERSIA

    Wolfgang Frey, Harald Kürschner, Wilfried Probst

    With approximately six thousand recorded species of ferns and flowering plants, Persia harbors one of the richest floras of the Near Eastern countries, ranging from subtropical forests to dry-adapted woodlands, dwarf shrubs and thorn cushion formations, and semidesert shrublands.

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  • FLORA iii. In Afghanistan

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN ii. Flora.

  • FLORA IRANICA

    Wolfgang Frey

    a monumental work on the plants of Persia. Edited by Karl Heinz Rechinger of Vienna since 1963, Flora Iranica now consists of some 172 fascicles and is nearly complete. Only two spermatophyte families, the Cyperaceae and the Rubiaceae, are as yet lacking

  • FLORENCE

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠAH-NĀMA MANUSCRIPTS.

  • FLOWERS

    Cross-Reference

    See GOL.

  • FLOYER, ERNEST AYSCOGHE

    Josef Elfenbein

    Floyer became the first station chief at Jāsk in 1870, although he was only seventeen, and served until 1877. Goldsmid encouraged his station and substation staff to explore their surroundings, and Floyer was one of those who responded, taking a long leave of absence in 1876-77.

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  • FLÜGEL, GUSTAV LEBERECHT

    Gerd Gropp

    (b. 18 February 1802, Bautzen; d. 5 July 1870, Dresden), German orientalist.

  • FLURY, SAMUEL

    Jens Kröger

    (1874-1935) pioneer of Islamic paleographical studies. Although Flury was primarily interested in problems of the development of Kufic script, much of his specific research was focused on monuments in Persia.

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  • FOḠĀN

    Cross-reference

    See AŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN.

  • FŌLĀDĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Buddhist cave site in Afghanistan. See AFGHANISTAN viii.

  • FOLK POETRY

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    in Iranian languages. The term ‘folk poetry’ can be properly used for texts which have some characteristics marking them as poetry and belong to the tradition of the common people, as against the dominant ‘polite’ literary cult

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Multiple Authors

    aims to provide a summary of folklore studies made in or about the Iranian world. It encompasses a wide field of varying notions, ranging from popular beliefs and customs to myths, legends and other genres of oral literature.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES i. OF PERSIA

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The term folklore denotes, in a very broad sense, the traditional cultural expression of any notable group of people, not necessarily belonging to a specific social stratum.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES ii. OF AFGHANISTAN

    Margaret A. Mills and Abdul Ali Ahrary

    Folklore may be defined as roughly comprising the oral-traditional component of culture, complementary or competitive with an official, canonical “written” culture, but this definition presents certain problems.

  • FOLŪS

    Cross-reference

    See CASSIA.

  • FONDOQESTĀN

    B. A. Litvinskiĭ

    (FONDUKISTAN), early medieval settlement and Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, in the province of Parvān (Parwan). The site is usually dated to the 7th century CE on the evidence of artistic style and numismatic finds, the oldest of which is from 689 C.E. However, the shape and the decorations of the stupa suggest that the complex can be even earlier.

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  • FOOD

    Cross-reference

    See COOKING.

  • FOOTBALL

    Houchang Chehabi

    (soccer). The game of football was introduced to Persia in the first two decades of the 20th century by British residents and American missionaries. 

  • FOQQĀʿ

    Sayyed Mohammad Dabirsiaghi

    Early dictionaries describe foqqāʿ as a kind of barley wine or beer but the semantic range later expanded to include juices from dried raisins, fruits, honey, and other ingredients. Because the liquid was not allowed to ferment, a distinction was often drawn between foqqāʿ as non-alcoholic and nabīd,ò which was fermented and could therefore be intoxicating.

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  • FORĀT

    Cross-reference

    See EUPHRATES.

  • FORĀT B. EBRĀHĪM

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite(most probably Imami) Koran commentator and Hadith scholar. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but the time he flourished can be estimated by the dates of the scholars whom he quoted or who transmitted Hadith on his authority.

  • FORĀT MAYSĀN

    Cross-reference

    See BAHMAN ARDAŠĪR.

  • FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    Willem Floor

    administration and ministry of foreign affairs.

  • FOREIGN EXCHANGE

    Cross-reference

    See ECONOMY.

  • FOREIGN POLICY

    Cross-Reference

    See FOREIGN AFFAIRS; ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT of 1919; ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR; ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION of 1907; and under individual countries and treaties.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Forests and Forestry in Persia. ii. Forests and Forestry in Afghanistan.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

    Eckart Ehlers

    Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Altogether, 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas.

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  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY ii. In Afghanistan

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN xiii.

  • FORGERIES

    Multiple Authors

    forgeries of art objects and manuscripts. i. Introduction. ii. Of Pre-Islamic Art Objects. iii. Of Islamic Art. iv. Of Manuscripts.

  • FORGERIES i. INTRODUCTION, ii. OF PRE-ISLAMIC ART OBJECTS

    Abolala Soudavar, Oscar White Muscarella

    of art objects and manuscripts. Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa how emergent Islamic rulers of Persia had forged their lineage and invented connections with previous dynasties in order to affirm their own legitimacy.

  • FORGERIES iii. OF ISLAMIC ART, iv. OF ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Sheila S. Blair, Francis Richard

    Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.

  • FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

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  • FORTIFICATIONS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period. 

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  • FORTRESSES

    Cross-reference

    See CASTLES.

  • FORŪD (1)

    Jean During

    (lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.

  • FORŪD (2)

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.

  • FORŪGĪ BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABBĀS

    Heshmat Moayyad

    or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.

  • FORŪGĪ, ABU'L-ḤASAN

    Bagher Agheli

    (b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.

  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK

    Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar

    (1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.

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  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN Khan Ḏokāʾ-al-Molk

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (b. Isfahan, 1839; d. Tehran, 1907), poet, journalist, literateur, translator, and author.

  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN

    Mina Marefat and EIr, Richard N. Frye

    (1907-1983), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution, and his art collection was placed in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran.

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