Table of Contents


    Mary Boyce

    the thirteenth of the Zoroastrian yašt hymns, devoted to the fravašis.


    Ahmad Tafazzoli

    name of the cosmic ocean in Iranian mythology.


    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    in Persian poetry. The term šeʿr-e āzād, Persian for the French vers libre and English free verse, entered Persia in the 1940s and immediately began to be used in a variety of senses and applied to diverse subspecies of the emerging canon of šeʿr-e now (new poetry), especially to highlight those features in which this body of poetry was felt to differ from classical Persian poetry and the contemporary practice modeled after it.


    Multiple Authors



    Multiple Authors

    This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century.  The topic will be treated in five entries.


    Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph

    The principal officers of the Lodge are the Worshipful Master and the Senior and Junior Wardens. The Worshipful Master is the head and chief of the Lodge, the source of light, of knowledge, and instruction. Dressed formally on a high pedestal, the Worshipful Master presides over the formal Masonic sessions.

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  • FREEMASONRY ii. In the Qajar Period

    Hamid Algar

    Persians made their first acquaintance with Freemasonry outside Persia, in India, and more importantly in Europe, and it was not until the first decade of the 20th century that a lodge regularly affiliated to one of the recognized European obediences appeared in the country.

  • FREEMASONRY iii. In the Pahlavi Period


    Freemasonry in the Pahlavi era underwent three distinct phases: (1) dormancy, from 1925-1950 under Reżā Shah and for the decade following his abdication in 1941; (2) revival, and the creation of the Lodge Pahlavi; (3) burgeoning, in the period of 1955-78, when dozens of regular lodges were chartered.

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  • FREEMASONRY iv. The 1979 Revolution


    From the onset of the 1978-79 revolutionary upheavals the Persian Freemasons became vulnerable to the anti-Masonic sentiments and threats of the main participants in the revolutionary coalition, including Islamic Fundamentalists, Leftist organizations, and Liberal-Nationalist forces.

  • FREEMASONRY v. In Exile

    Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph

    Many master Masons managed to leave the country legally or illegally and emigrated to Europe, Canada, and the United States.