Table of Contents

  • FORUTAN, ʿALI-AKBAR

    IRAJ AYMAN

    In Ashkhabad, Forutan had the opportunity to study under the Bahai scholar, Mirzā Mahdi Golpāygāni, and at his bidding gave lectures at Bahai meetings and wrote articles for the Bahai magazines Fekr-e-javān and Ḵoršid-e ḵāvar.  When he was in secondary school, Forutan served as a member of the Bahai Youth Committee in Ashkhabad.

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  • FORUTĀN, YŪSOF

    Jean During

    a twentieth century master of Persian music.

  • FORUZĀNFAR, Badiʿ-al-Zamān

    Abd-al-Hosayn Zarrinkub

    (1903-1970) Persian literary scholar and critic, professor at the University of Tehran, one of the pioneers of literary studies in modern Persia. A significant part of Forūzānfar’s scholarship was devoted to Rūmī and his associates; other works cover Islamic mysticism and philosophy.

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  • FOTOWWA

    Cross-reference

    See JAVĀNMARDĪ.

  • FOTŪḤ AL-SALĀṮĪN

    Cross-reference

    Work by Indo-Muslim poet ʿAbd-al-Malek ʿEṣāmi. See ʿEṢAMI, ʿABD-AL-MALEK.

  • FOUCHER, ALFRED

    François de Blois

    (1865-1952), the first head of the French Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan (see DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES, ii.) and a noted scholar on Grœco-Buddhist art.

  • FOUNDATIONS

    Cross-reference

    See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN; BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD; BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

  • FOWAṬĪ, HEŠĀM

    Josef van Ess

    b. ʿAMR (d. Baghdad, ca. 845), Muʿtazilite theologian of Basran affiliation and student of Abu’l-Hoḏayl.

  • FOX i. NATURAL HISTORY

    Steven C. Anderson

    small member of the dog family (Canidae). They occur throughout most of the world, with four species in Iran and Afghanistan, i. NATURAL HISTORY.

  • FOX ii. IN PERSIA

    Mahmoud and Teresa Omidsalar

    In pre-Islamic Iran, the fox was considered as one of the ten varieties of dog, created against a demon called xabag dēw. In Islam, although consuming fox flesh is forbidden by most schools of law, medicinal use of various parts of the fox’s body is allowed for treatment of a variety of conditions.

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