Table of Contents

  • FABLE

    Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar

    a kind of story often defined as “an animal tale with a moral"; there is no exact Persian equivalent of the term, but the words afsāna, dāstān, hekāyat, qeṣṣa, and samar are used to refer to such stories.

  • FABRITIUS, LUDVIG

    Rudi Matthee

    or LODEWYCK (b. Brazil, 1648; died Stockholm, 1729), Swedish envoy to the Safavid court.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

    Multiple Authors

    This article will deal with the faculties of Agriculture, Fine Arts, Law and Political Science, Letters and Humanities, and Medicine, which are among the oldest and most important secular institutions of higher education in Persia. Other faculties of the University of Tehran and main faculties of other major universities will be treated under individual UNIVERSITIES.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN i. Faculty of Agriculture

    MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN MAHDAWĪ ARDABĪLĪ

    ll graduates received the equivalent of bachelors’s degrees in agricultural engineering and were employed by the Ministry of Agriculture (Wezārat-e kešāvarzī). From 1930 to 1939 a total of 187 people were graduated, an average of nineteen a year.

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  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN ii. Faculty of Fine Arts

    MORTAŻĀ MOMAYYEZ

    Like most other faculties of the University of Tehran, the Faculty of Fine Arts was created by integrating already existing institutions.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iii. Faculty of Law and Political Science

    Ahmad Ashraf

    one of the oldest institutions of modern higher education in Persia, founded in 1927 with the merger of the School of Political Science (established in 1899) and the School of Law (established in 1918). In 1934, when the University of Tehran was founded, the school formed one of six main faculties.

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  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN iv. Faculty of Letters and Humanities

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    The Faculty of Letters and Humanities (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa ʿolūm-e ensānī), originally named the Faculty of Letters, Philosophy, and Educational Sciences (Dāneškada-ye adabīyāt wa falsafa wa ʿolūm-e tarbīatī), was one of the six faculties of the University of Tehran when it was founded in February 1935.

  • FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN v. Faculty of Medicine

    YŪNOS KARĀMATĪ and EIr

    (Dāneškada-ye pezeškī), the pioneering academic institution of modern medicine in Persia, one of the six main faculties of the new University of Tehran in 1934. It was the successor to the Dār al-fonūn Department of Medicine, established in 1851, which had become the School of Medicine (Madrasa-ye ṭebb) in 1919.

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  • FĀDŪSBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDŪSPĀN.

  • FĀʾEQ ḴĀṢṢA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. Khorasan 999), Turkish eunuch and slave commander of the Samanid army in Transoxania and Khorasan during the closing decades of that dynasty’s power.

  • FAḠĀNĪ, BĀBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀBĀ FAḠĀNĪ.

  • FAGERGREN, CONRAD GUSTAF

    Bo Utas

    (b. Stockholm, 1818; d. Shiraz, 1879), Swedish physician in Shiraz, 1848-79.

  • FAHHĀD, FARĪD-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    David Pingree

    , the most prolific producer of astronomical tables in the Islamic world. FARID-AL-DIN ABU’L-HASAN ALI FAHHADis credited with a total of six tables, all of which are lost. There are three lists of these tables, given by Moḥammad b. Abū Bakr Fāresī in his al-Zīj al-momtaḥan al-moẓaffarī, by Šams Monajjem Wābeknavī in his al-Zīj al-moḥaqqaq, and by Ḥājī Ḵalīfa.

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  • FAHLABAḎ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀRBAD.

  • FAHLAVĪYĀT

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    an appellation given especially to the quatrains and by extension to the poetry in general composed in the old dialects of the Pahla/Fahla regions.

  • FAHLĪĀN

    Jamšīd Ṣadāqat-Ḵīš

    a rural district (dehestān) situated 12 km northwest of Nūrābād in the Mamassanī šahrestān.

  • FAHRAJ

    Rezazadeh Langarudi

    subdistrict (dehestān) and town in the Persian province of Yazd.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ĀḎARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See under BAHMANID DYNASTY.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿAD

    Cross-Reference

    See GORGĀNĪ, FAḴR-AL-DĪN ASʿADĪ.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN ʿERĀQĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿERĀQI, FAḴR-AL-DIN.

  • FAḴR-AL-DĪN HAMADĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD HAMADĀNĪ.

  • FAḴR-al-DĪNZARRĀDĪ, MAWLĀNĀ

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    a 14th century spiritual leader of the Češtī Sufi order in India.

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK ARDALĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN.

  • FAḴR-AL-MOLK, ABU’L-FATḤ MOẒAFFAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Neẓām al-Molk (1043-1106/7), eldest son of the great Saljuq vizier and himself vizier to the Saljuq sultans Barkīāroq (1092-1105) and Moḥammad b. Malekšāh (1105-18).

  • FAḴR-AL-ZAMĀNĪ QAZVĪNĪ, ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ʿABD-AL-NABĪ QAZVĪNĪ.

  • FAḴR-E MODABBER

    EIr

    pen-name of Moḥammad b. Manṣūr b. Saʿīd, entitled Mobārakšāh, author of two prose works in Persian written in India in the late 12th and early 13th century, a book on genealogy with no formal title and the famous Ādāb al-ḥarb wa’l-šajāʿa.

  • FAḴRĀʾĪ, EBRĀHĪM REŻĀZĀDA

    Moḥammad-Taqī Pūr Aḥmad Jaktājī

    (b. Rašt, 1899; d. Tehran, 1988), educator, journalist, lawyer, and scholar.

  • FAḴRĪ BANĀKATĪ

    Cross-reference

    See BANĀKATĪ.

  • FAḴRĪ HERAVĪ, SOLṬĀN-MOḤAMMAD

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    b. Moḥammad Amīr Khan (or Solṭān) Amīrī Heravī (b. Herat, ca. 1497, d. probably in Agra, after 1566), poet, scholar, and Sufi who wrote on various aspects of the poetic art.

  • FĀḴTA

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    an obsolete Persian name for a columbine bird, most probably the so-called “collared turtle dove."

  • FĀḴTAʾĪ, ḤOSAYN QAWĀMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    a master vocalist of Persia in the second half of the 20th century. See QAWĀMI, ḤOSAYN.

  • FĀL

    Cross-reference

    See DIVINATION.

  • FĀL-ASĪRĪ, Ḥājj Sayyed ʿALĪ-AKBAR

    Manṣūr Rastgār FASāʾī

    prominent mojtahed of Shiraz (1840-1901). He led the prayer at Wakīl Mosque, where he regularly preached, and for years he wielded great influence in the religious, political, and social affairs of the city. He was an active opponent of the tobacco concession and instigated a riot against it.

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  • FĀL-NĀMA

    Īraj Afšār

    a book of presages and omens. The narrower and more common use of the term, equivalent to “bibliomancy,” is confined to texts used as material for divination by the reader directly or through a fortune-teller.

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  • FALAK

    Cross-Reference

    Arabic word for "sphere" (pl. aflāk). In Persian works of literature it is often referred to as being responsible for determining people's destiny. See ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN; COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY.

  • FALAKA

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    also falak, čūb o falak; one of the most common instruments of corporal punishment in Persia.

  • FALĀḴAN

    Parviz Mohebbi

    a sling.

  • FALAKĪ ŠARVĀNĪ, Abu’l-Neẓām Moḥammad

    François de Blois

    or ŠERVĀNĪ, a Persian poet of the first half of the 12th century.

  • FALĀṬŪRĪ, ʿABD-AL-JAWĀD

    Judith Pfeiffer

    (b. Isfahan, 1926; d. Berlin, 30 December 1996), professor of Islamic studies at Cologne University (1974-96).

  • FALCONS AND FALCONRY

    Cross-reference

    See BĀZ; BĀZDĀRĪ.

  • FALLĀḤ, REŻĀ

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī and EIr

    (b. Kāšān, 1910; d. London, 1981), deputy manager of the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC; Šerkat-e mellī-e naft-e Īrān), in charge of international relations and marketing.

  • FALSAFA

    Mansour Shaki

    philosophy in the pre-Islamic period. For philosophy in the Islamic period, see also articles under individual authors and schools, e.g., AVICENNA, FĀRĀBĪ, ILLUMINATIONISM, ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY, and MOLLĀ ṢADRĀ.

  • FALSAFĪ, NAṢR–ALLĀH

    Manouchehr Parsadoust

    (b. Tehran, 1901; d. 1981), Persian historian, educator, journalist, translator, and poet.

  • FALUDY, György

    ANDRÁS BODROGLIGETI

    (1910-2006), Hungarian poet, translator, and publicist.  

  • FĀMĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ABU NAṢR FĀMI.

  • FAMILY LAW

    Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Mansour Shaki, Jeanette Wakin

    legal prescriptions dealing with marriage, divorce, the status of children, inheritance, and related matters.

  • FAMILY PLANNING

    Mehdi Amani, Nancy Hatch Dupree

    a term for programs to regulate family size that came into use in the West in the 1930s. Although it originally encompassed efforts both to promote and to curtail fertility, explosive population growth in the developing countries since mid-century has narrowed its meaning to control of fertility.

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  • FAMINES

    Xavier de Planhol

    in Persia.

  • FANĀ ḴOSROW

    Cross-reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, FANĀ ḴOSROW.

  • FANĀʾĪĀN, Mīrzā FARAJ-ALLĀH JONŪN

    Vahid Rafati

    b. Loṭf-ʿAlī b. Moḥammad-Reżā (b. Sangsar, 1873), poet.

  • FANĀRŪZĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD ABU’L-FAWĀRES

    cross-reference

    See SENDBĀD-NĀMA.

  • FANĪ KAŠMĪRĪ

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    pen name of Shaikh MOḤAMMAD-MOḤSEN b. Ḥasan KAŠMĪRĪ (d. 1670/71), Indo-Persian scholar and poet.

  • FĀNŪS

    Cross-reference

    lanterns. See ČERĀḠ.

  • FAQĪR DEHLAVĪ, MĪR ŠAMS-AL-DĪN

    Munibur Rahman

    or Maftūn (fl. 18th century), Persian poet from the Indian sub-continent.

  • FAQĪR-ALLĀH JALĀLĀBĀDĪ

    Cross-reference

    See AFGHANISTAN xii. LITERATURE.

  • FĀRĀB

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a small district on the middle Syr Darya in Transoxania, at the confluence of that river with its right-bank tributary, the Arys, which flows down from Esfījāb, and also the name of a small town within it.

  • FĀRĀBĪ

    Multiple Authors

    Muslim philosopher of the 10th century.

  • FĀRĀBĪ i. Biography

    Dimitri Gutas

    No one among Fārābī’s successors and their followers, or even unrelated scholars, undertook to write his full biography.

  • FĀRĀBĪ ii. Logic

    Deborah L. Black

    Many of his writings take the form of commentaries on, or summaries of, the Aristotelian Organon, which, following the tradition of the Alexandrian commentators of late antiquity, included Porphyry’s Isagoge as well as Aristotle’sRhetoric and Poetics.

  • FĀRĀBĪ iii. Metaphysics

    Thérèse-Anne Druart

    His metaphysics scillates between two main projects: (1) a study of what is common to all beings, i.e., being as such and other universal notions such as oneness, and (2) a study of the ultimate causes, i.e., God and other immaterial beings. 

  • FĀRĀBĪ iv. Fārābī and Greek Philosophy

    Dimitri Gutas

    Fārābī’s philosophical moorings and direct affiliation lie in the Greek neo-Aristotelian school of Ammonius in Alexandria, in the form in which it survived and was revived after the Islamic conquest among Syriac Christian clerics and intellectuals in the centers of Eastern Christianity in the Fertile Crescent.

  • FĀRĀBĪ v. Music

    George Sawa

    In the history of Middle Eastern music Fārābī remains unequalled as a theorist, but this aspect of his manifold achievements has been obscured by his more widely known writings on philosophy.

  • FĀRĀBĪ vi. Political Philosophy

    Muhsin Mahdi

    The central theme of Fārābī’s political writings is the virtuous regime, the political order whose guiding principle is the realization of human excellence by virtue. 

  • FARĀH

    Daniel Balland

    Farāh has retained practically the same name since the first millennium B.C.E. At the end of the first century B.C.E, the “very great city” of Phra in Aria was reckoned as a major stage on the overland route between the Levant and India.

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  • FARAḤĀBĀD

    Wolfram Kleiss

    common place name throughout Persia, without any cultural or historical significance. The three best-known locales with this name are a city quarter of Tehran, the remains of a palace complext near Isfahan, and an Abbasid pleasure palace on the Caspian sea.

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  • FARĀHĀN

    Reżā Reżāzāda Langarūdī

    a district (baḵš) in Tafreš subprovince (šahrestān) of the Central (Markazī) province.

  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    Hafez Farmayan

    (1847-1913) Persian diplomat and author of a travelogue (safar-nāma) intended to show how a Shiʿite pilgrim could successfully undertake the journey to Mecca. In it one learns much about Arabia, the Ottoman empire, and the Sunnis in general.

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  • FARĀHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ṢĀDEQ

    Cross-Reference

    See ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ.

  • FARĀHĪ, ABŪ NAṢR BADR-al-DĪN MASʿŪD

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    or Moḥammad, Maḥmūd; b. Abī Bakr b. Ḥosayn b. Jaʿfar Farāhī (fl. 13th century), poet and litterateur.

  • FARĀHRŪD

    Daniel Balland

    river in southwestern Afghanistan, rising at about 3,300 meters above sea level in the Band-e Bayān, and, after a course of 712 km in a south-western direction, ending in the Hāmūn-e Ṣāberī (Sīstān) at an altitude of 475 m.

  • FARAHVAŠI, Bahrām

    Mahnaz Moazami

    Bahrām Farahvaši was born into a family with a long tradition of literary and scholarly pursuits.  His father, ʿAli Moḥammad Farahvaši (1875-1968), was one of the pioneers of education reform in the early 20th century and established modern schools in Tehran, Zanjan, and Azerbaijan.

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  • FARAJ-E BAʿD AZ ŠEDDAT

    Cross-Reference

    See DEHESTĀNI, ḤOSAYN.

  • FARĀLĀVĪ

    François de Blois

    the conventional reading of the name of an early Persian poet.

  • FARĀMARZ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Iran’s national hero Rostam, and himself a renowned hero of the Iranian national epic whose adventures were very popular, especially during the 10th and 11th centuries.

  • FARĀMARZ, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ.

  • FARĀMARZ-NĀMA

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Persian epic recounting the adventures of the hero Farāmarz.

  • FARĀMARZĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Mohammad Zarnegar

    (b. Gačūya, 1897; d. Tehran, 1972), an outspoken journalist, writer, educator, Majles deputy, and poet.

  • FARĀMŪŠ-ḴĀNA

    Cross-Reference

    See FREEMASONRY.

  • FARĀNAK

    Cross-reference

    according to the Šāh-nāma, the mother of Ferēdūn; also the name of a wife of Bahrām V Gōr.

  • FARANG, FARANGĪ

    Forthcoming

    Forthcoming online.

  • FARANGĪ MAḤALL

    Muhammad Wali-ul-Haq Ansari

    or FERANGĪ MAḤAL; family of Indian Muslim teachers, Hanafite scholars, and mystics active over the last 300 years.

  • FARANGĪS

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    eldest daughter of Afrāsīāb and wife of Sīāvaḵš.

  • FARAS-NĀMA

    Īraj Afšār

    a category of books and manuals dealing with horses and horsemanship. Topics treated in this literary genre include horse-breeding, grazing, dressage, veterinary advice, horseracing and betting, and the art of divination based on the mien and movements of horses.

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  • FARĀVA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Parau, a small medieval town in eastern Persia, lying east of the Caspian Sea and just beyond the northern edge of the Kopet-Dag range facing the Kara Kum desert.

  • FARDIN, Moḥammad ʿAli

    Jamsheed Akrami

    Fardin’s 23-year film career blossomed late, after a short stint in the theater, and it suffered an early demise in 1981 when the Islamic Republic of Iran banned him from filmmaking in a wholesale purge of the major entertainers of the pre-revolution era.

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  • FĀRES

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the Arabic term for “rider on a horse, cavalryman,” connected with the verb farasa/farosa “to be knowledgeable about horses, be a skillful horseman” and the noun faras “horse."

  • FĀRESĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ ʿALĪ FĀRESĪ.

  • FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    Gül A. Russell

    (d. 1320), the most significant figure in optics after Ebn al-Hayṯam (Alhazen; 965-1040). The two names have been linked due to his critical revision of Ebn al-Hayṯam’s Ketāb al-manāẓer, which represents a watershed in the scientifi;c understanding of light and vision.

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  • FĀRESĪYĀT

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    a literary term used in Arabic literature to refer to poems in Arabic which contain some Persian words or even phrases in their original form, the most notable example being the Fāresīyāt of Abū Nowās.

  • FARḠĀNA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    valley of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) river extending ca. 300 km between the Farḡāna mountains in the east and the first sharp bend of the river’s course to the north.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    David Pingree

    b. Moḥammad b. Kaṯīr (fl. ca. 950 C.E.), Muslim astronomer.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN SERĀJ-Al-DĪN ABU’L-MOḤAMMAD ʿALĪ

    Sayyāra Mahīnfar

    b. ʿOṯmān Ūšī or Ūsī (d. 1173), oṣūlī jurist (faqīh), traditionist, and author.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAʿĪD-AL-DĪN MOHAMMAD

    William C. Chittick

    b. Ahmad (d. 1300), Sufi author from the town of Kāsān in Farḡān.

  • FARḠĀNĪ, SAYF-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD

    Sayyāra Mahīnfar

    thirteenth century Persian poet and Sufi of Farḡāna.

  • FARHĀD (1)

    Heshmat Moayyad

    romantic figure in Persian legend and literature, best known from the poetry of Neẓāmī Ganjavī as a rival with the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628) for the love of the beautiful Armenian princess Šīrīn.

  • FARHĀD (2)

    Cross-Reference

    name of a number of Parthian kings. See PHRAATES.

  • FARHĀD KHAN QARAMĀNLŪ, ROKN-AL-SALṬANA

    Rudi Matthee

    military commander of Shah ʿAbbās I, executed at the Shah’s orders in 1598.

  • FARHĀD MĪRZĀ MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

    Kambiz Eslami

    (1818-1888), Qajar prince-governor and bibliophile. Holding highly conservative religious views on the administration of Persia, he viewed Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah's reformist vizier as an obliterator of the “foundation of the Muslim šarīʿa,” who was guilty of spreading the word “liberty” among the people.

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  • FARHANG

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the title of five newspapers and magazines printed in Persia and Europe.

  • FARHANG Ī OĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See FRAHANG Ī OĪM.

  • FARHANG Ī PAHLAVIG

    Cross-reference

    See FRAHANG Ī PAHLAWĪG.

  • FARHANG O ZENDAGĪ

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a periodical published in 28 issues from winter 1969 to spring 1978 by the Secretariat of the High Council of Culture and Art (Dabīr-ḵāna-ye Šūrā-ye ʿalī-e farhang o honar).

  • FARHANG, MĪRZĀ ABU’L-QĀSEM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    (b. Shiraz, 1827; d. Shiraz, 1891), poet, scholar, and calligrapher.

  • FARHANG-E ĀNANDRĀJ

    Solomon Baevskiĭ

    a dictionary of the Persian language named in honor of the maharaja Ānand Gajapatī Rāj, the nineteenth century ruler of Vijayanagar in South India.

  • FARHANG-E ASADĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ASĀDĪ TŪSĪ; LOḠĀT-E FORS.

  • FARHANG-E EBRĀHĪMĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    Persian-language dictionary compiled by the well-known fifteenth century poet Ebrāhīm Qewām-al-Dīn Fārūqī.

  • FARHANG-E HAYĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See HAYĪM, SOLAYMĀN.

  • FARHANG-E ĪRĀN-ZAMĪN

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a research quarterly first published in Tehran in March 1953.

  • FARHANG-E JAHĀNGĪRĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    It took Ḥosayn Enjū twelve years to complete his dictionary (1005-17/1595-1608), which he named in honor of Jahāngīr. He produced a second edition in 1032/1622. The dictionary lists 9,830 words: 8,960 Persian; 630 Arabic; 140 Indian; and about a hundred entries of Turkic and Greek origin as well as words from various dialects.

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  • FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

    Kamran Talattof and EIr

    an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973.

  • FARHANG-E NĀFĪSĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See NĀẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

  • FARHANG-E NEẒĀM

    Cross-reference

    See DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM.

  • FARHANG-E QAWWĀS

    Solomon Bayevsky

    a Persian dictionary compiled probably no later than 1315 by the founder of Persian lexicography in India, the poet and writer Faḵr-al-Dīn Mobārakšāh Qawwās Ḡaznavī, or Faḵr-e Qawwās, known also as Kamāngar.

  • FARHANG-E RAŠĪDĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1654 by the poet and scholar ʿAbd-al- Rašīd b. ʿAbd-al-Ḡafūr Ḥosaynī Tattavī.

  • FARHANG-E SORŪRĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    a dictionary of the Persian language, also known as Majmaʿ al-fors and Loḡat-e Sorūrī, compiled by the Persian poet Moḥammad-Qāsem Sorūrī.

  • FARHANG-E TĀRĪḴĪ-E ZABĀN-E FĀRSĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a comprehensive historical dictionary of the Persian language, of which only one volume has been published so far.

  • FARHANG-E WAFĀʾI

    Solomon Bayevsky

    or Resāla-ye Wafāʾi; a Persian lexicon of some 2,425 mainly literary terms, compiled by Ḥosayn Wafāʾi in 1527 and dedicated to the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb I.

  • FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ

    Habib Borjian

    (Farhangi zaboni tojikī, Tajik Language Dictionary), a descriptive dictionary of classical Persian in two volumes (1,900 pages).

  • FARHANG-E ZAFĀNGŪYĀ WA JAHĀNPŪYĀ

    Cross-reference

    See BADR-AL-DĪN EBRĀHĪM.

  • FARHANGESTĀN

    M. A. Jazayeri

    a term for “academy” which gained currency in the 20th century to denote an association of scholars.

  • FARHANGI ZABONI TOJIKĪ

    Cross-reference

    See FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ.

  • FARĪBORZ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Key Kāvūs.

  • FARĪBORZ

    Cross-Reference

    b. Salār. See ŠARVĀNŠĀH.

  • FARĪD

    EIr

    b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn.

  • FARĪD ESFARĀYENĪ, Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Ḵᵛāja FARĪD-AL-DĪN AḤWAL

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    or Eṣfahānī (d. after 1264), 13th-century Persian poet.

  • FARĪD KĀTEB

    Sheila S. Blair

    scribe active in Shiraz in the 16th century.

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN GANJ-E ŠAKAR

    Cross-Reference

    See GANJ-E ŠAKAR.

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN, ABŪ’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ ŠARVĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FAHHĀD.

  • FARĪDAN

    Mīnū Yūsofnežād

    a county (šahrestān) located at the foot of the Zagros mountains in the western part of Isfahan province, bordered on the north by Ḵᵛānsār, on the northwest by Alīgūdarz (in Lorestān province), on the west by the county of Farīdūn-æahr, on the east by Najafābād, and on the south by Šahr-e Kord and Fārsān.

  • FARĪDŪN

    Cross-Reference

    See FERĒDŪN.

  • FARIGHUNIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

  • FARĪḠŪNIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

  • FARĪZANDĪ

    Cross-reference

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS; see also NAṬANZĪ.

  • FARḴĀR

    Erwin F. Grötzbach

    river, valley, and administrative district (woloswālī), in Taḵār province, northeastern Afghanistan.

  • FARMĀN

    Bert G. Fragner

    “decree, command, order, judgement.” The term often denotes a royal or governmental decree, that is a public and legislative document promulgated in the name of the ruler or another person  holding elements of sovereignty.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ

    Ahmad Ashraf

    lit. “giver of an order,” i.e., ruler, commander; an epithet with three usages in the Safavid and Qajar periods.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

    Cyrus Mir and EIr

    (1858-1939), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and prime minister. He managed to sail successfully the stormy sea of Persian politics for several decades while the entire social and political landscape was undergoing dramatic change.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FEREYDŪN MĪRZĀ

    ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN NAVĀʾĪ

    (d. Mašhad, 1854), fifth son of the Qajar prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā and elder brother of Solṭān Morād Mīrzā Ḥosām-al-Salṭana.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ NOṢRAT-AL-DAWLA

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. His political and military career flourished in the reigns of his brother Moḥammad Shah (834-48) and his nephew Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96), under whom he held numerous governorships and other prominent posts.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    (1789-1835), the fifth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, long-time governor of Fārs, and briefly the self-styled king of Persia.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN NĀṢER-AL-MOLK

    ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN NAVĀʿĪ

    (b. ca. 1828-29; d. Tehran, 1887), high-ranking official in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96).

  • FARMING

    Mohammad-Said Nouri Naini

    in Persia. In the mid-1990s Persian agriculture accounted for over 25 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 25 percent of employment, and 33 percent of non-oil exports. It also met 75 percent of domestic food requirements and 90 percent of the needs of agricultural industries in the country.

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  • FARNAH

    Cross-reference

    See FARR(AH).

  • FARNŪDSĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See NAẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

  • FARŌḴŠI

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    the name of a Zoroastrian ceremony for departed souls, also called Farošīn, in Irani Zoroastrian dialect Parošīn.

  • FARR(AH)

    Gherardo Gnoli

    Avestan Xᵛarənah, lit. “glory,” according to the most likely etymology and the semantic function reconstructed from its occurrence in various contexts and phases of the Iranian languages.

  • FARR(AH) ii. ICONOGRAPHY OF FARR(AH)/XᵛARƎNAH

    Abolala Soudavar

    The core myth that reveals the characteristics of farr, and its function, is the myth of Jamšid as reflected in the Avesta. Empowered by his farr, Jamšid rules the world, but loses it when he strays from the righteous path. After two preliminary encounters, his farr is taken by a falcon.

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  • FARRANT, FRANCIS

    Denis Wright

    , Colonel (b. 1803 [?]; d. 1868), British soldier and diplomat.

  • FARRĀŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See CITIES iii.

  • FARROḴ KHAN KĀŠĪ, AMĪN-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN.

  • FARROḴ, Sayyed MAḤMŪD

    Jalal Matini

    (b. Mašhad, 1896; d. Mašhad, 1981), litterateur, poet, Majles deputy, and executive.

  • FARROḴĀN-E BOZORG

    Cross-Reference

    See DĀBŪYĪDS.

  • FARROḴĀN-E KŪČAK

    Cross-Reference

    See DĀBŪYĪDS.

  • FARROḴĪ SĪSTĀNĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    b. Jūlūḡ, eleventh century Persian court poet.

  • FARROḴĪ YAZDĪ

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    (1889-1939), journalist and poet and an early advocate of socialist revolution in Persia.

  • FARROḴZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    son of Ḵosrow II, ruled briefly in 630/631. See SASANIAN DYNASTY.

  • FARROḴZĀD, ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd, Ghaznavid sultan of Afghanistan and northern India (r. 1052-59).

  • FARROḴZĀD, FORŪḠ-ZAMĀN

    Farzaneh Milani

    (b. Tehran, 1935; d. Tehran, 1967), usually known as Forūḡ, Persian poet.

  • FARROXMARD

    Cross-Reference

    See MĀDAYĀN-Ī HAZĀR DĀDISTĀN.

  • FĀRS

    Multiple Authors

    province in southern Persia.

  • FĀRS i. Geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    comprised of the highland basins. East of the meridian of Bušehr and Isfahan, the Zagros mountain chains, which gradually decrease in altitude toward the southeast but still mostly remain above 2,000 and sometimes 3,000 m.

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  • FĀRS ii. History in the Pre-Islamic Period

    Josef Wiesehöfer

    The history of early pre-Islamic Fārs is most closely interwoven with that of its eastern and western neighbors. Agrarian settlements had been established (by immigrants?) in the Muški phase in the Kor basin, a widely and well researched area, before 5,500 B.C.E.

  • FĀRS iii. History in the Islamic Period

    A. K. S. Lambton

    Although the Arabs did not take over the Sasanian system of quadrants, they kept the division of Fārs into five kūras, a division which continued until the 6th/12th century. Shiraz, a continuously inhabited site which may go back to Sasanian or even earlier times, became and has remained the provincial capital.

  • FĀRS iv. History in the Qajar and Pahlavi Periods

    Ahmad Ashraf

    The Qajar period (1794-1921) was marked in Fārs by developments such as the rule of dozens of prince-governors; Britain’s influence, with domination of the Persian Gulf; division of the Qašqāʾī and Ḵamsa tribal confederacies; continued local autonomy of tribal khans and influential landowners; and the increasing political role of the ʿolamāʾ.

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  • FĀRS v. Monuments

    Dietrich Huff

    The founder of the Sasanian empire, Ardašīr I (224-40), shifted the seat of power to the newly founded Ardašīr Ḵorra (Fīrūzābād), a circular city with palaces that are still preserved. His successor, Šāpūr I, built Bīšāpūr as his capital. Nevertheless, Eṣṭaḵr remained the most important city of Fārs until Shiraz surpassed it after the Islamic conquest in the 7th century.

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  • FĀRS vi. Population

    Habib Zanjani

    The province of Fārs is the largest and the most populous province in the south of Persia. In the  national census of 1996, it was composed of 16 counties (šahrestāns), comprising a total of 60 districts (baḵš), 48 towns (šahr), and 185 village clusters (dehestān).

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  • FĀRS vii. Ethnography

    Pierre Oberling

    The largest part of the population of Fārs is of Iranian stock, but since the rise of Islam in the 7th century there has been substantial immigration of peoples of other ethnic origins into the province.

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  • FĀRS viii. Dialects

    Gernot Windfuhr

    Local variants of Persian are found in most cities and towns and their vicinities, and, rurally, mainly in the northeastern parts of the region, all of which tend to reflect a good deal of the vocabulary and idiomatic features of the earlier non-Persian dialects.

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  • FĀRS ix. PREHISTORIC SEQUENCE

    Abbas Alizadeh

    Six archeological sites—Tall-e Muški, Tall-e Jari A and B, Tall-e Gap, and Tall-e Bākun A and B—in the Persepolis plain of the Marvdašt area are the primary sources for the study of the prehistoric cultural development in Fārs.

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  • FĀRS NEWSPAPER

    Nassereddin Parvin

    name of two newspapers published in Shiraz.

  • FĀRS-NĀMA-YE EBN-E BALḴĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See EBN AL-BALḴĪ.

  • FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ

    Heribert Busse; Ahmad Ashraf and Ali Banuazizi

    a history and geography of the province of Fārs, with maps and illustrations, by Mīrzā Ḥasan Fasāʾī (1821-1898). Part two includes topics such as the climate of Fārs, its flora and fauna, agricultural products, the position of Fārs according to longitude and latitude, the problem of cartographic projection.

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  • FARSANG

    Cross-Reference

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  • FARŠĒDVARD

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Kayanian prince in the Iranian legendary history, son of Goštāsp and brother of Esfandīār.

  • FĀRSĪ, ABŪ NAṢR ḤEBBAT-ALLĀH

    Cross-reference

    Official, soldier and poet of the Ghaznavid empire, flourished in the second half of the 5th/11th century during the reigns of the sultans Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd I and Masʿūd III b. Ebrāhīm. See ABŪ NAṢR FĀRSĪ.

  • FĀRSI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1320), the most significant figure in optics after Ebn al-Hayṯam. See FĀRESĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD.

  • FĀRSĪMADĀN

    Pierre Oberling

    one of the most important tribes of the Qašqāʾī tribal confederacy.

  • FĀRŪQĪ DYNASTY

    Carl W. Ernst

    of Khandesh, lit. "land of the khans" in present-day Madhya Pradesh (1370-1601). The prosperity of Khandesh depended upon trade and the production of fine textiles. Patronage of Češtī Sufism also was an important element of Fārūqī state policy.

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  • FĀRŪQĪ EBRĀHĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See FARHANG-E EBRĀHĪMĪ.

  • FĀRŪQĪ, MOLLĀ MAḤMŪD

    Cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • FARVI DIALECT

    Habib Borjian

    Farvi or Farvigi is the native dialect of Farroḵi, a township in the sub-province of Ḵur o Biābānak on the edge of the Great Persian Desert.

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  • FĀRYĀB

    Daniel Balland

    by the 10th century, one of the towns of the Farighunid princes of Gūzgān, vassals of the Samanids. The medieval name was revived when the high governorate (ḥokūmat-e ʿalā) of Maymana was elevated to the rank of province (welāyat). Its cities, besides Maymana, are Andḵūy and Dawlatābād.

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  • FĀRYĀBĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN ABU’L-FAŻL ṬĀHER

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    b. Moḥammad, twelfth century Persian poet who used Ẓahīr as his pen name.

  • FARYĀD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the title of seven publications in Persian.

  • FARYŪMAD

    Chahryar Adle

    (modern FARŪMAD), MONUMENTS OF.

  • FARYŪMADĪ, YAMĪN-AL-DĪN

    Cross-Reference

    See EBN YAMĪN.

  • FARZĀD, MASʿŪD

    Ahmad Karimi Hakkak

    Throughout this period, Farzād wrote poetry, mostly within the classical tradition. In 1942 he published a selection of his poems in a volume entitled Waqtī ke šāʿer būdam (When I was a poet). He had also begun work on a new edition of Ḥāfeẓ’s Dīvān, a task which became a life-long labor.

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  • FARZĀN, Sayyed Moḥammad

    EIr

    (b. near Birjand, 1894; d. Bābolsar, 1970), an eminent scholar of classical literature.

  • FASĀ

    Multiple Authors

    a sub-province and a city in Fārs.

  • FASĀ i. Geography and History

    MĪNŪ YŪSOFNEŽĀD and JUDITH LERNER

    The sub-province (šahrestān) of Fasā, with an area of ca. 3,820 km2, is bounded to the north by the šahrestāns of Eṣṭahbān/Estahbān and Shiraz, to the east by Eṣṭahbān and Dārāb, to the south by Dārāb and Jahrom, and to the west by Jahrom and Shiraz. 

  • FASĀ ii. Tall-e Żaḥḥāk

    JOHN F. HANSMAN

    a tell or artificial mound, lying within a still broader archeological zone, built up by successive layers of human occupation from prehistoric to medieval times; it is located 130 km south of Shiraz and 3 km southeast of Fasā.

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  • FASĀʾĪ, ḤĀJJ MĪRZĀ ḤASAN ḤOSAYNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FĀRS-NĀMA-YE NĀṢERĪ.

  • FAṢD

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • FASIH, Esma’il

    Ali Ferdowsi

    Fasih left Iran in 1956, and eventually ended up in Montana State College in Bozeman, Montana. Beginning with his junior year at the college, he transferred to the University of Montana in Missoula where he earned a BS in Chemistry and a BA in English.

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  • FAṢĪḤĪ HERAVĪ, MĪRZĀ FAṢĪḤ-AL-DĪN

    ḎABĪḤ-ĀLLĀH ṢAFĀ

    b. Abu’l-Makārem b. Mawlānā Mīrjān Anṣārī (1579-1639), poet of the 11th/17th century.

  • FASMER, RICHARD RICHARDOVICH

    Anatol Ivanov

    or VASMER (1858-1938), eminent Russian numismatist.

  • FASTING

    Denise Soufi

    in Persia. Both individually and communally, fasting is typically a religious exercise—employed by devotees as means of supplication to the will of God, preparation for rites of devotion, worship of divinity, purification of the body so that spiritual issues can be better comprehended, penitence for transgressions against religious codes, and mourning for deceased persons.  OVERVIEW of entry: i. Among Zoroastrians, Manicheans, and Bahais. ii. In Sunni and Shiʿite Islam.

  • FATALISM

    Based on a longer article by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb

    in the Islamic period. The concept of fatalism as commonly used in Islamic philosophy and Persian literature denotes the belief in the pre-ordained Decree of God (qażā wa qadar), according to which whatever happens to human beings or in the whole universe has been pre-determined by the will and knowledge of the Almighty, and that no changes or transformations in it can be made through the agency of the human will.

  • FATĀWĪ-E ʿĀLAMGĪRĪ

    S. H. Qasemi

    abridged Persian translation by Qāżī Najm-al-Dīn Khan Kākorī of a six-volume Arabic work on Hanafite law (ed. Būlāq, 1859) considered the authoritative compendium of religious law, policy, and practice in India.

  • FATE

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴT; FATALISM; FREE WILL.

  • FĀTEḤ, MOṢṬAFĀ

    Bāqer ʿĀqelī

    (b. Isfahan, 1896; d. London, 1978), a deputy director-general of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and banker.

  • FĀṬEMA

    Jean Calmard

    daughter of the Prophet Moḥammad.

  • FĀṬEMA-SOLṬĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ANĪS-AL-DAWLA.

  • FĀṬEMĪ, ḤOSAYN

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    Fāṭemī protested against the government rigging of the elections for the Sixteenth Majles with MosÂaddeq, helped to mobilize support, and in October 1949 was one of a delegation selected to accompany MosÂaddeq in a sit-in (bast) at the royal palace protesting the conduct of the elections.

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  • FATḤ

    EIr

    b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times.

  • FATḤ JANG

    Mehrdad Shokoohy

    or Mīrzā Ebrāhīm (d. 1623-24), a Mughal official. 

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ ĀḴŪNDZĀDA

    Cross-Reference

    See AḴŪNDZĀDA.

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ KHAN AFŠAR ARAŠLŪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AFŠĀR.

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ KHAN QĀJĀR

    ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN NAVĀʾĪ

    chief of the Ašāqa-bāš division of the Qajar tribes at Astarābād at the time of the demise of the Safavid dynasty.

  • FATḤ-ʿALĪ SHAH QĀJĀR

    Abbas Amanat

    (1769-1834), second ruler of the Qajar dynasty. He transformed a largely Turkic tribal khanship into a centralized and stable monarchy on the old imperial model which brought to the Guarded Domains of Persia (mamālek-e maḥrūsa-ye Īrān) a period of relative calm and prosperity, secured a state-religious symbiosis, and fostered a period of cultural and artistic revival.

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  • FATḤ-ALLĀH ŠĪRĀZĪ, SAYYED MĪR

    Sharif Husain Qasemi

    a famous sixteenth century Sufi, an official in Mughal India, and one of the most learned men of his time.

  • FATḤ-NĀMA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Arabic-Persian term used to denote proclamations and letters announcing victories in battle or the successful conclusion of military campaigns.

  • FATIMIDS

    Farhad Daftary

    relations with Persia. A major Ismaʿili Shiʿite dynasty, the Fatimids founded their own caliphate, in rivalry with the ʿAbbasids, and ruled over different parts of the Islamic world, from North Africa and Sicily to Palestine and Syria.

  • FATTĀḤĪ NĪŠĀBŪRĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Tahsın Yazici

    b. Yaḥyā Sībak (d. 1448), Persian poet of the Timurid era, born in Nīšāpūr (hence his nesba Nīšābūrī) at an unknown date.

  • FATWĀ

    Hamid Algar

    the authoritative ruling of a religious scholar on questions of Islamic jurisprudence that are either dubious or obscure in nature or which have newly arisen without known precedent.

  • FAUNA i. FAUNA OF PERSIA

    Steven Anderson

    the assemblage of animal species, generally excluding domestic animals, living within a defined geographical area or ecological zone. i. Fauna of Persia. ii. Fauna of Afghanistan. iii. Fauna of Central Asia.

  • FAUNA ii, iii. FAUNA OF CENTRAL ASIA

    O. L. Kryzhanovskiĭ

    the assemblage of animal species, generally excluding domestic animals, living within a defined geographical area or ecological zone. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Fauna of Persia. ii. Fauna of Afghanistan. iii. Fauna of Central Asia.

  • FAUSTUS

    James R. Russell

    fifth-century author of the Patmutʿiwn Hayocʿ (History of the Armenians) or Buzandaran.

  • FAVA BEANS

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀQELĀ.

  • FAWZĪ MOSTĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FEVZİ MOSTĀRĪ.

  • FAWZĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See FEVZI EFENDI.

  • FAYYĀŻ LĀHĪJĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ.

  • FAYYĀŻ, ʿALĪ-AKBAR MAJĪDĪ

    Jalāl Matīnī

    Fayyāż remained an indefatigable scholar all his life. Going beyond his traditional background, he studied a number of western languages, including Russian, German, English, ancient Greek, and Latin. He was a meticulous scholar, combining his profound knowledge of traditional Islamic sciences and Persian literature with modern methodology in scholarship and literary criticism.

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  • FAYŻ MOḤAMMAD KĀTEB

    R. D. McChesney and A. H. Tarzi

    Afghan court chronicler and secretary to the amir Ḥabīb–Allāh Khan (r. 1901-19).

  • FAYŻ-E KĀŠĀNĪ, MOLLĀ MOḤSEN-MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    b. Šāh Mortażā b. Šāh Maḥmūd (b. 1598-9, d. 1679), prolific and versatile scholar of the Safavid period, celebrated chiefly for his Sufi inclinations.

  • FAYŻĀBĀD

    Daniel Balland

    a toponym of auspicious meaning (“blessed abode”) which enjoys great popularity throughout the Iranian world.

  • FAYŻĪ, ABU’L-FAYŻ

    Munibur Rahman

    (b. Agra, 1547; d. Lahore, 1595), Mughal court poet, also known as Fayżī Fayyāżī, who wrote mainly in Persian.

  • FAYŻĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Moojan Momen

    (1906-1980), Bahai teacher, missionary, and author.

  • FAŻĀʾEL-E BALḴ

    Arezou Azad

    13th-century local history from Balḵ in eastern Khorasan, with a collection of biographies of Balḵ’s early Islamic scholars and mystics. It differs from many other local histories of medieval Islamic cities in that it comprises a mix of historical, topographical, and prosopographical information,  covering six centuries from the advent of Islam to the late 12th century.

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  • FĀŻEL KHAN GARRŪSĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Īraj Afšār

    (1784-1843), poet, litterateur, and secretary during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah (1797-1834) and Moḥammad Shah Qājār (1834-48).

  • FĀŻEL MĀZANDARĀNĪ, MĪRZĀ ASAD-ALLĀH

    Moojan Momen

    (b. Bābol, 1881; d. Ḵorramšahr, 1957), Bahai scholar and missionary.

  • FĀŻEL TŪNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    Hūšang Etteḥād

    From the beginning of 1934, Mohammad-Hosayn taught Arabic language and literature and Islamic philosophy at the University of Tehran, becoming a full professor two years later. He retired from teaching in 1958. He was known for his memory, his sense of humor, and his ability to form friendships with colleagues from different disciplines.

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  • FAZEL, JAVAD

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1914-1961), noted serial writer, and a pioneering figure in simplifying and popularizing religious texts.

  • FAŻL NAYRĪZĪ

    David Pingree

    , ABU’L ʿABBĀS b. Ḥātem, mathematician and astronomer (fl. 900 C.E.). His family originated from Nayrīz/Nīrīz, a small town near Shiraz. Almost nothing is known of his personal life. The fact that he

  • FAŻL, b. AḤMAD ESFARĀʾENĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ESFARĀʾENĪ, FAŻL B. AḤMAD.

  • FAŻL, b. Šāḏān NĪŠĀPŪRĪ AZDĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD

    Etan Kohlberg

    (d. 873), Imami traditionalist, theologian, and jurisprudent.

  • FAŻL, b. SAHL b. Zādānfarrūḵ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 818), high official of the early ʿAbbasids and vizier to the caliph al-Maʾmūn (r. 813-33).

  • FAŻL-ALLĀH ḤORŪFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH.

  • FAŻL-ALLĀH NŪRĪ, SHAIKH

    Cross-reference

    See NŪRĪ, FAŻL-ALLĀH.

  • FAŻLĪ NAMANGĀNĪ, ʿABD-AL-KARĪM

    Michael Zand

    (d. after 1822), Central Asian bilingual poet (Persian and Chaghatay), taḏkera compiler, and historian.

  • FAŻLĪ, MEḤMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Istanbul; d. Kütahya, 1563), Moḥammad or ʿAlī ÇAĞDAŞLAN; Turkish poet, known also as Qara Fażlī.

  • FAŻLŪYA DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FAŻLŪYA.

  • FAŻLŪYA, Amir ABU’L-ʿABBĀS FAŻL

    ʿAbd-Allāh Mardūḵ

    known also as Neẓām-al-Dīn Fażl-Allāh, chief of the Šabānkāra Kurds in Fārs during the 11th century.

  • FEDĀʾĪ

    Farhad Daftary

    or fedāwī; devotee, a person who offers his life for others or in the service of a particular cause.

  • FEDĀʾĪ ḴORĀSĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Farhad Daftary

    b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedīn b. Karbalāʾī Dāwūd (b. ca. 1850; d. 1923), foremost Persian Nezārī Ismaʿili author and poet of modern times, who is referred to as Ḥājī Āḵūnd in the Persian Nezārī community.

  • FEDĀʾĪĀN-E ESLĀM

    FARHAD KAZEMI

    a Shiʿite fundamentalist group with a strong activist political orientation founded in 1945 by a charismatic figure, Sayyed Mojtabā Mīrlawḥī (1923-55).

  • FEDĀʾĪĀN-E ḴALQ

    Cross-Reference

    See COMMUNISM iii.

  • FEHİM SÜLEYMAN EFENDİ

    Tahsın Yazici

    or FAHĪM SOLAYMĀN (b. Istanbul, 1789; d. 1846), a Persian teacher and poet of Turkish origin.

  • FEHREST

    Rudolf Sellheim and Mohsen Zakeri, François de Blois, Werner Sundermann

    or Ketāb al-fehrest; a celebrated catalogue of books in Arabic, drafted in 987 by Ebn al-Nadīm. Some scholars regard him as a Persian, but this is not certain. However, his choice of a rather rare Persian word for the title of a handbook on Arabic literature is noteworthy.

  • FEKETE, Lajos

    ANDRÁS BODROGLIGETI

    (1891-1969), Hungarian historian and specialist of Turkish-Persian paleography.

  • FELĀḤAT-E MOẒAFFARĪ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first monthly magazine in Persia dealing with agricultural issues published from August 1900 to Noveber 1907; the official publication of the General Agricultural Office of Persia.

  • FELFEL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    modern Persian term designating the fruits and/or berries of two botanically different groups of plants: the pepper proper and the capsicum peppers.

  • FELT

    Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard

    (namad), material produced by process of felting, the entanglement of animal fiber in all directions, done to form a soft and homogeneous mass. The technique was originally devised in nomadic communities of Central Asia (Pazyryk, 5th to 3rd centuries BCE).

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  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS i. INTRODUCTION, ii. IN THE LATE QAJAR PERIOD

    EIr, Janet Afary

    Persia of the 20th century saw a number of popular, often small and short-lived, women’s rights activities which had been mobilized by liberal and left wing authors, journalists, and political organizations in the 1900s-1920s and again in the 1940s-50s.

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  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iii. IN THE PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Hamideh Sedghi

    in the Pahlavi Period. The fundamental political, socio-cultural, and economic changes which Persia underwent in the Pahlavi era (1921-78) had drastic repercussions on the women’s rights movement and the condition of women.

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  • FEMINIST MOVEMENTS iv. IN THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Ziba Mir-Hosseini

    After the Revolution of 1978-79, “feminism,” because of its associations with the West and its appropriation by the previous regime, soon became viewed by the ruling clerics as synonymous with decadence.

  • FENDERESK

    Mīnū Yūsofnežād

    a rural district (dehestān) of the county (šahrestān) of Gonbad-e Qābūs and situated north of the Alborz range in the eastern part of Māzandarān.

  • FENDERESKĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See MĪR FENDERESKI, ABU’L-QĀSEM.

  • FENNEL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    the aromatic sweetish potherb and medicinal plant Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (= Anethum foeniculum L., etc.; fam. Umbelliferae).

  • FEQH

    Norman Calder

    lit. "jurisprudence"; term used to designate the processes of exposition, analysis, and argument which constitute human effort to express God’s law (šarīʿa).

  • FERDAWS AL-MORŠEDĪYA FĪ ASRĀR AL-ṢAMADĪYA

    Īraj Afšār

    a major hagiography of Abū Esḥāq Kāzarūnī (963-1033), a famous Sufi and founder of a selsela variously referred to as Kāzarūnīya, Esḥāqīya, or Moršedīya.

  • FERDOWS

    Baqer Parham

    šahrestān in Khorasan consisting of three administrative districts: the city of Ferdows and its immediate suburbs, Bošrūya and Sarāyān.

  • FERDOWSĪ MAGAZINE

    Esmail Nooriala

    the name of two periodicals, a bi-monthly and a weekly magazine published in Tehran.

  • FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM

    Multiple Authors

    (940-1019 or 1025), one of the greatest epic poets and author of the Šāh-nāma, the national epic of Persia.

  • FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM i. Life

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Apart from his patronymic (konya), Abu’l-Qāsem, and his pen name (taḵallosá), Ferdowsī, nothing is known with any certainty about his names or the identity of his family.

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM ii. Hajw-nāma

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Hajw-nāma is the title of a verse lampoon of Sultan Maḥmūd of Ḡazna attributed to Ferdowsī. According to Neẓāmī ʿArūżī, after Ferdowsī presented his Šāh-nāma, the sultan used the pretext of the poet’s alleged Muʿtazilite and Shiʿite orientation to give him only twenty thousand dirhams as the reward for the epic.

  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iii. MAUSOLEUM

    A. Shahpur Shahbazi

    The rise of nationalism in Persia early this century motivated scholars and dignitaries to urge the government to build a suitable mausoleum for the poet who had done so much to preserve Iranian identity and history. Moḥammad-Taqī Bahār wrote articles urging Reżā Khan to prove his asserted nationalism by building a mausoleum.

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  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM iv. MILLENARY CELEBRATION

    A. Shahpur Shahbazi

    Already in 1922 Moḥammad-Taqī Bahār, the most influential poet of the time and a politician-journalist, urged Reżā Khan (later Reżā Shah), who had recently seized power, to prove his asserted nationalism by celebrating Ferdowsī and building a worthy mausoleum for the “resurrector of Iranian national identity and people.”

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  • FERDOWSI, ABU’L-QĀSEM v. HOMAGES TO FERDOWSI

    EIr

    Ever since the appearance of the Šāh-nāma, Ferdowsī has been held in high esteem, and many poets have referred to him and his work, the best known being Saʿdī’s tribute in the Būstān to “Ferdowsī-ye pāk-zād,” quoting a line from him even though the verse itself has not been found in the Šāh-nāma .

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  • FERİDUN AḤMED BEG, ʿABD-AL-QĀDER

    Rudolf Vesel

    or FEREYDŪN AḤMAD BAYG (d. 1583), Ottoman secretary, administrator, head of the chancery, and author.

  • FERĒDŪN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    Iranian mythic hero.

  • FEREŠTA

    Cross-Reference

    angels in Islam and Persian folklore. See Supplement, ANGELS.

  • FEREŠTA, MOḤAMMAD-QĀSEM

    Cross-Reference

    See FEREŠTA, TĀRĪḴ-E.

  • FEREŠTA,TĀRĪḴ-E

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    popular title of Golšan-e ebrāhīmī, a general history of Muslim India by Moḥammad-Qāsem Hendušāh Astarābādī (b. Astarābād ca. 1570), the celebrated historian of the Deccan known by the pen name (taḵalloṣ) of Ferešta.

  • FEREYDŪN

    Cross-reference

    (Faridun, Fereydoun, Fereydoon) Iranian mythic hero. See FERĒDŪN.

  • FERŌD

    Cross-Reference

    See FORŪD.

  • FERQA-YE DEMOKRĀT-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    Forthcoming

    Democratic Party of Azerbaijan; the dominant political party in Azarbayjan during the Pīšavarī period. See Supplement.

  • FERRIER, JOSEPH PHILIPPE

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (1811-1886), French soldier in the Persian service (1839-42, 1846-50).

  • FERRIER, JOSEPHE-PIERRE

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    19th-century French traveler and intrepid explorer in Afghanistan.

  • FERTILITY AND MORTALITY

    Mehdi Amani

    in Persia. Up to 1986 the Persian birthrate was high (as high as 48-49 per 1,000), compared to the world rate but had dropped from 1966, as a result of official policies on family planning.  In 1994 the Persian birthrate equaled the average for Asia and Central America, 26 to 30 per 1,000 population, reflecting a continued very high fertility rate.

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  • FESANJĀN

    Etrat Elahi

    (fesenjūn, fasūjan), a well known Persian dish (ḵoreš, a kind of stew) made of walnut or almond, poultry (usually duck) or small meat balls (kalla gonješkī) and pomegranate sauce or juice.

  • FESTIVALS

    Multiple Authors

    This article treats mainly religious or communal festivals and commemorations in Persia and Afghanistan.

  • FESTIVALS i. ZOROASTRIAN

    Mary Boyce

    fall into two broad categories. There are the seven feasts of obligation, that is, No Rōz (Nowrūz) and the six gāhānbārs (gāhāmbār; q.v.), which formed the framework of the religious year, and which it was a sin not to keep; and others, which it was a merit, not a duty, to observe.

  • FESTIVALS ii. MANICHEAN

    Werner Sundermann

    The Manichean calendar of holidays proves independence from that of the Zoroastrians. Even if the heptavalent number of the Manichean Yimkis was correlated to the Zoroastrian gāhānbār and Nowrūz

  • FESTIVALS iii, iv, v

    Anne H. Betteridge and EIr, Philip G. Kreyenbroek, Keith Hitchins

    iii. SHI'ITE, iv. YAZIDI AND AHL-E HAQQ, v. KURDISH (SUNNI).

  • FESTIVALS vi, vii, viii

    Moojan Momen, Amnon Netzer, A. Arkun

    vi. BAHAI, vii. JEWISH, viii. ARMENIAN.

  • FESTIVALS ix. Assyrian

    WILLIAM PIROYAN and EDEN NABY

    The adoption of Christianity by the Assyrians in the latter part of the 1st century led to the harmonization of older community celebrations and commemorations with Christian doctrine as well as the introduction of specifically Christian religious holidays.

  • FESTIVALS x. IN AFGHANISTAN

    NANCY HATCH DUPREE

    Festive ceremonies in Afghanistan mark special religious days and major events in individual life cycles. Few are formally organized, being celebrated primarily to keep family bonds strong and community ties congenial.

  • FEṬR

    Cross-Reference

    See FESTIVALS iii.

  • FEṬRAT ZARDŪZ SAMARQANDĪ, SAYYED KAMĀL

    Michael Zand

    (1660-1699), Tajik poet.

  • FEṬRAT, ʿABD-AL-RAʾŪF BOḴĀRĪ

    Habib Borjian

    (b. Bukhara, ca. 1886; d. Tashkent, 1938), teacher, man of letters, and the most important thinker of the Jadid movement of modern Central Asia.

  • FETYĀN

    Cross-reference

    See ʿAYYĀR; JAVĀNMARDI.

  • FEUDALISM

    Cross-Reference

    European term sometimes applied to medieval Persia; see EQṬĀʿ.

  • FEUVRIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

    Jean Calmard

    (1842-1926), Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s personal physician (1889-1892), author of Trois ans à la cour de Perse, with engravings from photographs in the collections of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah and his retinue, Feuvrier’s own drawings, and Persian contemporary paintings. The book is a major source of information, notably on the Tobacco Concession and its aftermath.

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  • FEVZİ EFENDİ, MEḤMED

    Tahsın Yazici

    or FAWZĪ (b. Denizli, 1826; d. Istanbul, 1900), Ottoman author who wrote some books in Persian.

  • FEVZİ MOSTĀRĪ

    Hamid Algar

    or FAWZĪ (d. 1747), author of the Bolbolestān, an imitation of Saʿdī’s Golestān, the only prose work written in Persian known to be by a Bosnian author.

  • FEYLĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    group of Lor tribes located mainly in Luristan.

  • FEYLĪ DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See LORĪ.

  • FICTION

    Multiple Authors

    i. Traditional Forms. ii. Modern Fiction. ii(a). Historical Background. ii(b). The Novel. ii(c). The Short Story. ii(d). The Post-Revolutionary Short Story. ii(e). Post-Revolutionary Fiction Abroad. ii(f). By Persians in Non-Persian Languages. ii(g). In Afghanistan. ii(h). In Tajikistan.

  • FICTION, i

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. TRADITIONAL FORMS. This article deals with all kinds of stories written for specifically literary purposes up to the time when narrative prose in the modern style, derived from the West, was introduced in Persia.

  • FICTION, ii(a)

    SĪMĪN BEHBAHĀNĪ and EIr

    ii(a). HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MODERN FICTION.  The long reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96) and the Constitutional Revolution a decade after his death witnessed the gradual emergence of modern fiction in Persia.

  • FICTION, ii(b)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(b). THE NOVEL.

  • FICTION, ii(c)

    Jamāl Mīrṣādeqī

    ii(c). THE SHORT STORY. Historically, the modern Persian short story has undergone three stages of development: a formative period, a period of consolidation and growth, and a period of diversity.

  • FICTION, ii(d)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(d). THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY SHORT STORY. The post-revolutionary short story is marked by its formal sophistication and has carved out a distinct and experimental space of its own in fiction.

  • FICTION, ii(e)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(e). POST-REVOLUTIONARY FICTION ABROAD. Not only were the novel and short story imported genres, the very first works of Persian fiction were either written or first published outside Persia.

  • FICTION, ii(f)

    Houra Yavari

    ii(f). BY PERSIANS IN NON-PERSIAN LANGUAGES. Persian fiction is not limited to works written in the Persian language, or to works written within the geographical boundaries of Persia herself.

  • FICTION, ii(g)

    Shahwali Ahmadi

    ii(g). IN AFGHANISTAN. The introduction of modern fiction in Afghanistan was concomitant with the institution of new educational and literary organizations, namely the Ḥabībīya School and Anjoman-e adabī, and the publication of the bi-weekly Serāj al-aḵbār-e afḡānīya, edited by Maḥmūd Ṭarzī, in the early twentieth century.

  • FICTION, ii(h)

    Keith Hitchins

    ii(h). IN TAJIKISTAN. Tajik fiction in the 20th century has drawn from a variety of sources.

  • FIEF

    Cross-Reference

    See EQṬĀʿ; LAND TENURE.

  • FIG

    Hušang Aʿlam

    the “fruit” of several species and subspecies of Ficus L. (fam. Moraceae) in the geobotanical area covered by K. H. Rechinger’s Flora Iranica.

  • FIGUEROA, GARCÍA DE SILVA Y

    Michele Bernardini

    (b. Zafra, 1550; d. at sea returning from Persia, 1624), Spanish diplomat and traveler.

  • FIGURES OF SPEECH

    Cross-reference

    See BADIʿ (1).

  • FĪL

    Cross-Reference

    See ELEPHANT.

  • FILBERT

    Cross-Reference

    See HAZELNUT.

  • FILIPPI, FILIPPO DE

    Anna Vanzan

    (1814-1867), a professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at Turin University.

  • FILM PRODUCTION

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement; see also CINEMA.

  • FĪN

    Cross-Reference

    strict and spring near Kāšān. See BĀḠ-E FĪN.

  • FINKENSTEIN, TREATY OF

    Cross-Reference

    See FRANCE iii; GARDANE MISSION.

  • FIRE

    Cross-reference

    See ĀDUR, ĀTAŠ, ĀTAŠKADA.

  • FIRE ALTARS

    Mark Garrison

    a structure used to to hold fire for urposes of veneration, probably contained within a metal or clay bowl. The term should probably be restricted to those structures which have a clear Zoroastrian religious context.

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  • FIRE TEMPLES

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠKADA.

  • FIRE WORSHIP

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀTAŠ.

  • FIREARMS i. HISTORY

    Rudi Matthee

    in Persia. This article surveys the history and production of various firearms and artillery in Persia from their introduction to the 19th century.

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  • FIREARMS ii. PRODUCTION OF CANNON AND MUSKETS

    Parviz Mohebbi

    By the last quarter of the 16th century, cannon-making was so common that cannons were constructed even on the spot during siege operations.

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  • FIRMAN

    Cross-Reference

    See FARMĀN.

  • FĪRŪZ

    Klaus Schippmann

    (PĒRŌZ) Sasanian king (r. 459-84), son of Yazdegerd II (r. 439-57). 

  • FĪRŪZ BAHRĀM

    Fariborz Majīdī and Hūšang Etteḥād

    one of Tehran’s oldest high schools, founded by Parsi philanthropist Bahramji Bikaji as a memorial to his son Fīrūz, who was lost at sea in the Mediterranean in 1915. Bikaji’s initial plan was to build an elementary school in

  • FĪRŪZ MAŠREQĪ

    Aḥmad Edāračī Gīlānī

    (or Pīrūz; not Mošrefī as in Majmaʿ al-foṣaḥāʾ, p. 946), poet at the court of the Saffarids Yaʿqūb b. Layṯ (r. 867-78) and his brother ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • FĪRŪZ MĪRZA

    Cross-reference

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. See FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ.

  • FĪRŪZ ŠĀPŪR

    Cross-reference

    name of a town on the left bank of the Euphrates five km north-west of Fallūǰa and sixty-two km west of Baghdad. See ANBĀR.

  • FIRUZ, MARYAM

    Maziar Behrooz

    Firuz was born into the royal Qajar family.  Her father was ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the second son of Firuz Mirzā Noṣrat-al-Dawla Farmānfarmā, the sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mirzā, son and the crown prince of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah, the second Qajar king.

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  • FĪRŪZA

    Cross-reference

    See TURQUOISE.

  • FĪRŪZĀBĀD

    Dietrich Huff

    The plain of Fīrūzābād has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with a major Chalcolithic site, Tall-e Rīgī, in the south. Surrounded by precipitous mountains with few and easily defensible access roads, it was chosen by Ardašīr-e Bābakān as the key stronghold in his revolt against the last Parthian King.

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  • FĪRŪZĀBĀDĪ, ABŪ ṬĀHER MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • FĪRŪZKŪH

    Bernard Hourcade

    name of two towns: (1) a fortified city in the medieval Islamic province of Ḡūr in Central Afghanistan, which was the capital of the senior branch of the Ghurid sultans (see GHURIDS) for some sixty years in the later 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries; (2) fortress and surrounding settlement in the Damāvand region of the Alborz mountains in northern Persia.

  • FĪRŪZŠĀH-NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway

    pre-Safavid prose romance, the hero of which is Fīrūzšāh, son of Dārāb of the Kayanid house. 

  • FISCAL SYSTEM

    Multiple Authors

    i. Achaemenid Period. ii. Sasanian Period. iii. Islamic Period. iv. Safavid and Qajar Periods. v. Pahlavi Period. vi. Islamic Republic..

  • FISCAL SYSTEM i. ACHAEMENID, ii. SASANIAN

    Mohammad A. Dandamayev, Rika Gyselen

    There probably was no clear distinction between state and royal incomes in the Achaemenid empire. All state receipts were considered royal property, as was the income from the king’s estates. Beginning from ca. 519 B.C.E., when Darius I established a new tax system, the peoples subject to the Persians paid 7,740 Babylonian talents of silver (i.e., 232,200 kg) a year.

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    JÜRGEN PAUL

    iii. ISLAMIC PERIOD Such a system can be studied in at least three aspects: First, its relationship to the ruler or the government; second, its relationship to those groups in the population who serve as sources of revenue (“taxpayers”);

  • FISCAL SYSTEM iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS

    Willem Floor

    iv. SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS The Safavid shah’s fiscal prerogatives were expressed by terms like bājgoḏār, bājsetān, and jezyagoḏār (tax assessor or tax taker).

  • FISCAL SYSTEM v. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    MASSOUD KARSHENAS

    The first attempts at setting up a modern fiscal system in Persian began after the Constitutional Revolution.

  • FISCAL SYSTEM vi. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Adnan Mazarei

    The receipt of large revenues from oil exports and their expenditure for developing various sectors of the economy, improving infrastructure, and providing social services have made the government’s fiscal policies a major determinant of the overall economic incentives, structure and level of economic activity.

  • FISCHEL, WALTER JOSEPH

    David Yeroushalmi

    (b. 12 November 1902; d. 14 July 1973), a scholar of Oriental Jewry and Islamic civilization.

  • FISH

    Multiple Authors

    in Persia. With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals (dolphins, whales, seals), and particularly, fishes. Thus the country has rich aquatic resources and considerable potential for fishing and aquaculture.

  • FISH i. FRESHWATER FISHES

    Brian W. Coad

    With about 1,800 km of coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and about 990 km on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, plus some inland fresh waters, Persia has a great variety of aquatic fauna: mollusks, crustaceans, chelonians, mammals, and especially fishes.

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  • FISH ii. SALT WATER FISHES

    Hušang Aʿlam

    Except for occasional short reports by foreign researchers on some individual fish species from the Sea of Oman and the Persian Gulf, there was no comprehensive scientific study of the ichthyofauna of the region until the Danish H. Blegvad and B. Løppenthin’s systematic survey.

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  • FISH iii. IN PRE-ISLAMIC PERSIAN LORE

    Hušang Aʿlam

    The Bundahišn contains interesting pseudo-scientific, mythical, and sometimes inconsistent information about fishes.

  • FISH iv. FISH AS FOOD

    NAJMIEH BATMANGLIJ

    Although fish is the main source of animal protein along the northern and southern coasts of Persia, it is not much eaten in the rest of the country but in a smoked form as a delicacy traditionally served with rice and fresh herbs on the first day of the new year at the end of the zodiacal month of Pisces.

  • FISHERIES

    Houshang Alam

    There was no real fishing organization in Persia until the second half of the 19th century when Russian subjects, encouraged and backed by the Tsarist Russia’s expansionist policy, becameinncreasingly involved in coastal and fluvial fishing activities in the Caspian provinces of Persia.

  • FITZGERALD, EDWARD

    Dick Davis

    (1809-1883),  British translator of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (by far the most famous translation ever made from Persian verse into English), as well as Jāmī’s Salāmān o Absāl and ʿAṭṭār’s Manṭeq al-ṭayr.

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  • FLAGS

    Multiple Authors

    This article is meant to supplement earlier entries on Iranian vexillology (see ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT, BANNERS, and DERAFŠ).

  • FLAGS i. Of Persia

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The earliest-known representation of lion and sun as a banner device is a miniature painting illustrating a copy, dated 1423, of the Šāh-nāma of Šams-al-Dīn Kāšānī—an epic composition on the Mongol conquest. A similar early depiction is on a large, double-paged miniature dated ca. 1460.

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  • FLAGS ii. Of Afghanistan

    Habib Borjian

    Nāder Shah’s (1929-33) policy of moderate reforms was reflected in the flag he reportedly used when he seized power—the tricolor flag introduced by Amān-Allāh; it was soon modified as a bound sheaf of wheat circling a stylized mosque, which recalls the mausoleum of Aḥmad Shah Dorrānī.

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  • FLAGS iii. of Tajikistan

    Habib Borjian

    On 28 April 1929, the constitution of the Tajik ASSR adopted a state arms and flag. The arms consisted of a hammer (bālḡa) and local sickle (dās) symbol against a star, which depicts a blue sky brightened by golden rays of sun rising above snowy mountains. The star is encircled on each side by wreaths of wheat and cotton.

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  • FLANDIN AND COSTE

    Jean Calmard

    Eugène Flandin was the son of Jean-Baptiste Flandin, an intendant in Napoléon’s armies. Little is known about his mother Marie-Agnès Durand. Eugène’s early years were linked with his father’s tumultuous career. He was only two years old when his family returned from Naples, where his father had been assigned since 1807, serving with Murat.

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  • FLANDIN, Eugène Napoléon Jean-Baptiste

    Cross-Reference

    (1809-1889), French orientalist, painter, archeologist, and politician, famous for the illustrated account of his travels in Persia. See FLANDIN AND COSTE.

  • FLOODS

    Eckart Ehlers, Charles Melville

    (sayl, sayl-āb) in Persia. i. Geographical survey. ii. Historical survey. Surplus or deficit of water, mainly caused by Persia’s topography, undergoes seasonal variations with decisively stronger precipitation during the winter months, which explains why floods occur predominantly during these periods.

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  • FLORA

    Multiple Authors

    i. Historical Background. ii. In Persia. iii. In Afghanistan

  • FLORA i. Historical Background

    Karl Hummel

    The indigenous knowledge of plants in Persia had a long standing tradition before the country’s flora was explored by Europeans, who were eventually joined in modern scientific botany by Persian botanists.

  • FLORA ii. IN PERSIA

    Wolfgang Frey, Harald Kürschner, Wilfried Probst

    With approximately six thousand recorded species of ferns and flowering plants, Persia harbors one of the richest floras of the Near Eastern countries, ranging from subtropical forests to dry-adapted woodlands, dwarf shrubs and thorn cushion formations, and semidesert shrublands.

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  • FLORA iii. In Afghanistan

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN ii. Flora.

  • FLORA IRANICA

    Wolfgang Frey

    a monumental work on the plants of Persia. Edited by Karl Heinz Rechinger of Vienna since 1963, Flora Iranica now consists of some 172 fascicles and is nearly complete. Only two spermatophyte families, the Cyperaceae and the Rubiaceae, are as yet lacking

  • FLORENCE

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠAH-NĀMA MANUSCRIPTS.

  • FLOWERS

    Cross-Reference

    See GOL.

  • FLOYER, ERNEST AYSCOGHE

    Josef Elfenbein

    Floyer became the first station chief at Jāsk in 1870, although he was only seventeen, and served until 1877. Goldsmid encouraged his station and substation staff to explore their surroundings, and Floyer was one of those who responded, taking a long leave of absence in 1876-77.

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  • FLÜGEL, GUSTAV LEBERECHT

    Gerd Gropp

    (b. 18 February 1802, Bautzen; d. 5 July 1870, Dresden), German orientalist.

  • FLURY, SAMUEL

    Jens Kröger

    (1874-1935) pioneer of Islamic paleographical studies.(1874-1935) pioneer of Islamic paleographical studies. Although Flury was primarily interested in problems of the development of Kufic script, much of his specific research was focused on monuments in Persia.

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  • FOḠĀN

    Cross-reference

    See AŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN.

  • FŌLĀDĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Buddhist cave site in Afghanistan. See AFGHANISTAN viii.

  • FOLK POETRY

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    in Iranian languages. The term ‘folk poetry’ can be properly used for texts which have some characteristics marking them as poetry and belong to the tradition of the common people, as against the dominant ‘polite’ literary cult

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Multiple Authors

    aims to provide a summary of folklore studies made in or about the Iranian world. It encompasses a wide field of varying notions, ranging from popular beliefs and customs to myths, legends and other genres of oral literature.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES i. OF PERSIA

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The term folklore denotes, in a very broad sense, the traditional cultural expression of any notable group of people, not necessarily belonging to a specific social stratum.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES ii. OF AFGHANISTAN

    Margaret A. Mills and Abdul Ali Ahrary

    Folklore may be defined as roughly comprising the oral-traditional component of culture, complementary or competitive with an official, canonical “written” culture, but this definition presents certain problems.

  • FOLŪS

    Cross-reference

    See CASSIA.

  • FONDOQESTĀN

    B. A. Litvinskiĭ

    (FONDUKISTAN), early medieval settlement and Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, in the province of Parvān (Parwan). The site is usually dated to the 7th century CE on the evidence of artistic style and numismatic finds, the oldest of which is from 689 C.E. However, the shape and the decorations of the stupa suggest that the complex can be even earlier.

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  • FOOD

    Cross-reference

    See COOKING.

  • FOOTBALL

    Houchang Chehabi

    (soccer). The game of football was introduced to Persia in the first two decades of the 20th century by British residents and American missionaries. 

  • FOQQĀʿ

    Sayyed Mohammad Dabirsiaghi

    Early dictionaries describe foqqāʿ as a kind of barley wine or beer but the semantic range later expanded to include juices from dried raisins, fruits, honey, and other ingredients. Because the liquid was not allowed to ferment, a distinction was often drawn between foqqāʿ as non-alcoholic and nabīd,ò which was fermented and could therefore be intoxicating.

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  • FORĀT

    Cross-reference

    See EUPHRATES.

  • FORĀT B. EBRĀHĪM

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite(most probably Imami) Koran commentator and Hadith scholar. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but the time he flourished can be estimated by the dates of the scholars whom he quoted or who transmitted Hadith on his authority.

  • FORĀT MAYSĀN

    Cross-reference

    See BAHMAN ARDAŠĪR.

  • FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    Willem Floor

    administration and ministry of foreign affairs.

  • FOREIGN EXCHANGE

    Cross-reference

    See ECONOMY.

  • FOREIGN POLICY

    Cross-Reference

    See FOREIGN AFFAIRS; ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT of 1919; ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR; ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION of 1907; and under individual countries and treaties.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Forests and Forestry in Persia. ii. Forests and Forestry in Afghanistan.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

    Eckart Ehlers

    Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Altogether, 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas.

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  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY ii. In Afghanistan

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN xiii.

  • FORGERIES

    Multiple Authors

    forgeries of art objects and manuscripts. i. Introduction. ii. Of Pre-Islamic Art Objects. iii. Of Islamic Art. iv. Of Manuscripts.

  • FORGERIES i. INTRODUCTION, ii. OF PRE-ISLAMIC ART OBJECTS

    Abolala Soudavar, Oscar White Muscarella

    of art objects and manuscripts. Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa how emergent Islamic rulers of Persia had forged their lineage and invented connections with previous dynasties in order to affirm their own legitimacy.

  • FORGERIES iii. OF ISLAMIC ART, iv. OF ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Sheila S. Blair, Francis Richard

    Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.

  • FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

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  • FORTIFICATIONS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period. 

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  • FORTRESSES

    Cross-reference

    See CASTLES.

  • FORŪD (1)

    Jean During

    (lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.

  • FORŪD (2)

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.

  • FORŪGĪ BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABBĀS

    Heshmat Moayyad

    or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.

  • FORŪGĪ, ABU'L-ḤASAN

    Bagher Agheli

    (b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.

  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK

    Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar

    (1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.

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  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN Khan Ḏokāʾ-al-Molk

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (b. Isfahan, 1839; d. Tehran, 1907), poet, journalist, literateur, translator, and author.

  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤSEN

    Mina Marefat and EIr, Richard N. Frye

    (1907-1983), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution, and his art collection was placed in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran.

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  • FORUTAN, ʿALI-AKBAR

    IRAJ AYMAN

    In Ashkhabad, Forutan had the opportunity to study under the Bahai scholar, Mirzā Mahdi Golpāygāni, and at his bidding gave lectures at Bahai meetings and wrote articles for the Bahai magazines Fekr-e-javān and Ḵoršid-e ḵāvar.  When he was in secondary school, Forutan served as a member of the Bahai Youth Committee in Ashkhabad.

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  • FORUTĀN, YŪSOF

    Jean During

    a twentieth century master of Persian music.

  • FORUZĀNFAR, Badiʿ-al-Zamān

    Abd-al-Hosayn Zarrinkub

    (1903-1970) Persian literary scholar and critic, professor at the University of Tehran, one of the pioneers of literary studies in modern Persia. A significant part of Forūzānfar’s scholarship was devoted to Rūmī and his associates; other works cover Islamic mysticism and philosophy.

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  • FOTOWWA

    Cross-reference

    See JAVĀNMARDĪ.

  • FOTŪḤ AL-SALĀṮĪN

    Cross-reference

    Work by Indo-Muslim poet ʿAbd-al-Malek ʿEṣāmi. See ʿEṢAMI, ʿABD-AL-MALEK.

  • FOUCHER, ALFRED

    François de Blois

    (1865-1952), the first head of the French Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan (see DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES, ii.) and a noted scholar on Grœco-Buddhist art.

  • FOUNDATIONS

    Cross-reference

    See under individual entries, such as BONYĀD-E FARHANG-E ĪRĀN; BONYĀD-E ŠAHĪD; BONYĀD-E ŠĀH-NĀMA-YE FERDOWSĪ.

  • FOWAṬĪ, HEŠĀM

    Josef van Ess

    b. ʿAMR (d. Baghdad, ca. 845), Muʿtazilite theologian of Basran affiliation and student of Abu’l-Hoḏayl.

  • FOX i. NATURAL HISTORY

    Steven C. Anderson

    small member of the dog family (Canidae). They occur throughout most of the world, with four species in Iran and Afghanistan, i. NATURAL HISTORY.

  • FOX ii. IN PERSIA

    Mahmoud and Teresa Omidsalar

    In pre-Islamic Iran, the fox was considered as one of the ten varieties of dog, created against a demon called xabag dēw. In Islam, although consuming fox flesh is forbidden by most schools of law, medicinal use of various parts of the fox’s body is allowed for treatment of a variety of conditions.

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  • FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Eir

    b. Solaymān (ca. 1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian.

  • FRĀDA

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    a sixth century Margian leader.

  • FRAHANG Ī OĪM

    William W. Malandra

    an Avestan-Pahlavi glossary so named after its first entry, Av. oīm glossed by Pahl. ēwag, though the work is introduced with the lengthy title: “On the understanding of the speech and words of the Avesta, namely, what and how its zand is.”

  • FRAHANG Ī PAHLAWĪG

    D. N. MacKenzie

    lit. “a Pahlavi dictionary,” is rather a description than the title of an anonymous glossary of some five hundred mostly Aramaic heterograms (ideograms), in the form used by Zoroastrians in writing Middle Persian (Book Pahlavi), each explained by a “phonetic” writing of the corresponding Persian word.

  • FRAMADĀR

    Marie-Louise Chaumont

    or FRAMĀTĀR; a Sasanian administrative title.

  • FRANCE

    Multiple Authors

    Relations with Iran.

  • FRANCE i. Introduction

    Jean Calmard

    Compared to the long-standing history of Persian civilization, France emerged as a powerful entity endowed with its own distinctive culture only in the 13th century C.E., i.e. the great century of Christianity.

  • FRANCE ii. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA TO 1789

    Jean Calmard

    In the early Middle Ages, Persia was perceived by the French mostly through biblical, Greek, and Latin sources.

  • FRANCE iii. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA 1789-1918

    Florence Hellot-Bellier

    After more than sixty years of half-hearted diplomatic maneuverings, permanent relations were finally established between the France and Persia in 1855.

  • FRANCE iv. RELATIONS WITH PERSIA SINCE 1918

    Marie-Louise Chaumont

    During the First World War, France, unlike England, Russia, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire, had no direct strategic interests in Persia.

  • FRANCE v. ADMINISTRATIVE AND MILITARY CONTACTS WITH PERSIA

    Massoud Farnoud

    The motives for Franco-Persian administrative and military contacts between the French Revolution of 1789 and the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, their implementation and their impact on Persia will be examined here.

  • FRANCE vi. PERSIA AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

    Mohammad Tavakoli-Targhi

    Persians saw the French Revolution as sedition (fetna), corruption (fesād), a general disturbance by the populace (balwā-ye ʿāmm), insurrection (šūreš), the great revolution (enqelāb-e ʿaẓīm), and the great revolution (enqelāb-e kabīr).

  • FRANCE vii. FRENCH TRAVELERS IN PERSIA, 1600-1730

    Anne-Marie Touzard

    While the Italian cities and Spain entered into diplomatic relations with Persia at an early date, this was not true of France, despite an abortive attempt—the dispatch in 1626 of Louis Deshayes de Courmenin to the court of Shah ʿAbbās I. The early 17th century also witnessed the great missionary upsurge in France.

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  • FRANCE viii. TRAVELOGUES OF THE 18TH-20TH CENTURIES

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    On the reign of Nāder Shah (1736-1747), accounts by missionaries, notably those by the Jesuit Père Louis Bazin, chief physician to Nāder Shah from 1746 until the latter’s assassination, form useful complements to the Persian sources.

  • FRANCE ix. IMAGE OF PERSIA AND PERSIAN LITERATURE AMONG FRENCH AUTHORS

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    France used Persia as a means of social, political, and religious self-criticism, and they were interested in Zoroastrianism as “the most ancient religion."

  • FRANCE x. FRENCH LITERATURE IN PERSIA

    Christophe Balay

    The new trends in Persian literature in the beginning of the 20th century are closely related to social and political changes which began in Persia under Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96), and brought about the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11.

  • FRANCE xi. PERSIAN ART AND ART COLLECTIONS IN FRANCE

    Yves Porter

    French collections, both public and private, contain hundreds of Persian works of art. Some of these reached France during the Middle Ages, notably after the Crusades, but most of the great collections containing Persian art were created during the second half of the 19th century.

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  • FRANCE xii(a). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: OVERVIEW

    Vincent Hachard and Bernard Hourcade

    The genuine beginning of Persian studies in France began with the foundation in Istanbul and Smyrna (Izmir) of a “School of languages for the young” in 1669 to train translators of Ottoman Turkish for French consulates. After merger with the Collège Louis-le-Grand in Paris in 1763, the teaching of Persian was introduced.

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  • FRANCE xii(b). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Philippe Gignoux

    The French contribution to pre-Islamic Iranian studies, both in philological studies and archaeology, has been considerable.

  • FRANCE xii(c). IRANIAN STUDIES IN FRANCE: SOCIAL SCIENCES AND MODERN PERSIA

    Bernard Hourcade

    The history of French scholarship on modern Persia particularly in the field of social sciences was shaped by major external factors including the overall political relationship between the two countries and the radical changes which took place in the French university system and the organization of its scholarly missions to Persia in the latter half of this century.

  • FRANCE xiii. INSTITUT FRANÇAIS DE RECHERCHE EN IRAN

    R. Boucharlat

    The Institut français de recherche en Iran (IFRI) was established in its present form and under the above name in l983, although in Persia it is usually referred to as Anjoman-e īrān-šenāsī-e farānsa dar Īrān.

  • FRANCE xiv. FRENCH ARCHAEOLOGICAL MISSION

    Cross-reference

    See DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES i.

  • FRANCE xv. FRENCH SCHOOLS IN PERSIA

    Djavad Hadidi

    French schools in Persia had more varied roots than other foreign schools, originating from three distinct sources: Catholic, Jewish, and secular. Catholic schools were established by Lazarist missionaries, Jewish schools by the Alliance Israélite Universelle (q.v.), and lay schools by Alliance Française.

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  • FRANCE xvi. LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    Guitty Deyhime

    The gradual entry of a large number of loan words into Persian from European languages and most notably from French began in the 19th century and continued through the 20th century as part of the process of modernization of culture and society in Persia.

  • FRANCE xvii. Persian Community in France

    VidaNassehi-Behnam

    The emergence of a Persian community in France can perhaps be traced back to 1272/1855-6, when Farrok Khan Ḡaffārī, Amīn-al-Molk, later Amīn-al-Dawla was sent to Paris as the shah’s envoy (īlcī-e kabīr).

  • FRANKLIN BOOK PROGRAM

    Datus C. Smith, Jr.

    (Moʾassasa-ye entešārāt-e Ferānklīn), an American non-profit corporation seeking to aid development of indigenous book publishing in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The program in Persia (1954-1979, the first after Egypt) was the largest of the seventeen around the world.

  • FRANRASYAN

    Cross-reference

    See AFRĀSĪĀB.

  • FRĀRĀST

    Cross-reference

    See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  • FRAŠEGERD

    Cross-reference

    See FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI.

  • FRASER JAMES BAILLIE

    Denis Wright

    (1783-1856), 15th laird of Reelig, traveler, writer, and artist.

  • FRAŠŌ.KƎRƎTI

    Almut Hintze

    an eschatological term referring to the final renovation and transfiguration of Ahura Mazdā’s creation after evil has been utterly defeated and driven away.

  • FRAŠOŠTAR

    Cross-reference

    See JĀMĀSP.

  • FRATARAKA

    Josef Wiesehöfer

    lit. “leader, governor, forerunner”; ancient Persian title.

  • FRAVARTISH

    Cross-Reference

    Median rebel against Darius I. See PHRAORTES.

  • FRAVAŠI

    Mary Boyce

    the Avestan word for a powerful supernatural being whose concept at an early stage in Zoroastrianism became blended with that of the urvan (the human soul).

  • FRAWĀG

    Cross-reference

    See SĪĀMAG.

  • FRAWAHR

    Cross-reference

    See FRAVAŠI.

  • FRAWARDĪGĀN

    William W. Malandra

    name of the ten-day Zoroastrian festival (gāhānbār) at year’s end in honor of the spirits of the dead.

  • FRAWARDĪN

    Cross-reference

    name of the nineteenth day of a month and also the name of the first month of the year in the Zoroastrian calendar. See CALENDARS i.

  • FRAWARDĪN YAŠT

    Mary Boyce

    the thirteenth of the Zoroastrian yašt hymns, devoted to the fravašis.

  • FRĀXKARD

    Ahmad Tafazzoli

    name of the cosmic ocean in Iranian mythology.

  • FREE VERSE

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak

    in Persian poetry. The term šeʿr-e āzād, Persian for the French vers libre and English free verse, entered Persia in the 1940s and immediately began to be used in a variety of senses and applied to diverse subspecies of the emerging canon of šeʿr-e now (new poetry), especially to highlight those features in which this body of poetry was felt to differ from classical Persian poetry and the contemporary practice modeled after it.

  • FREE WILL

    Farhad Daftary and Faquir M. Hunzai

    i. IN TWELVER SHI'ISM, ii. IN ISMA'ILI SHI'ISM.

  • FREEMASONRY

    Multiple Authors

    This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century.  The topic will be treated in five entries.

  • FREEMASONRY i. INTRODUCTION

    Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph

    The principal officers of the Lodge are the Worshipful Master and the Senior and Junior Wardens. The Worshipful Master is the head and chief of the Lodge, the source of light, of knowledge, and instruction. Dressed formally on a high pedestal, the Worshipful Master presides over the formal Masonic sessions.

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  • FREEMASONRY ii. In the Qajar Period

    Hamid Algar

    Persians made their first acquaintance with Freemasonry outside Persia, in India, and more importantly in Europe, and it was not until the first decade of the 20th century that a lodge regularly affiliated to one of the recognized European obediences appeared in the country.

  • FREEMASONRY iii. In the Pahlavi Period

    EIr

    Freemasonry in the Pahlavi era underwent three distinct phases: (1) dormancy, from 1925-1950 under Reżā Shah and for the decade following his abdication in 1941; (2) revival, and the creation of the Lodge Pahlavi; (3) burgeoning, in the period of 1955-78, when dozens of regular lodges were chartered.

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  • FREEMASONRY iv. The 1979 Revolution

    EIr

    From the onset of the 1978-79 revolutionary upheavals the Persian Freemasons became vulnerable to the anti-Masonic sentiments and threats of the main participants in the revolutionary coalition, including Islamic Fundamentalists, Leftist organizations, and Liberal-Nationalist forces.

  • FREEMASONRY v. In Exile

    Hasan Azinfar, M.-T. Eskandari, and Edward Joseph

    Many master Masons managed to leave the country legally or illegally and emigrated to Europe, Canada, and the United States.

  • FREĬMAN, Aleksandr Arnol’dovich

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (1879-1968), founder and the head of the Soviet school of the comparative-historical method in Iranian linguistics. For sixty years, Freĭman worked in various areas of Iranian languages. His work on Sogdian, Chorasmian, and Ossetic is especially important.

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  • FRENCH REVOLUTION

    Cross-reference

    and Persia. See FRANCE ii and FRANCE iii.

  • FRIDAY PRAYERS

    Cross-Reference

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays. See EMĀM-E JOMʿA.

  • FRIT WARES

    Cross-reference

    See CERAMICS xiv.

  • FROGS

    Cross-reference

    See AMPHIBIANS.

  • FRONTIERS

    Cross-reference

    See BOUNDARIES.

  • FRUIT

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (mīva). Jean Chardin (1643-1713) reported (p. 24) that “in Persia there were all the same kinds of fruit as in Europe and many others, all incomparatively delicious.” He noted the great variety of melons, cucumbers, grapes, dates, apricots, pomegranates, apples, pears, oranges, quinces, prunes, figs, pistachios, almonds, walnuts, filberts, and olives.

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  • FRYER, JOHN

    Michael J. Franklin

    (b. ca. 1650; d. 1733), British travel-writer and doctor. His writings  display a lively curiosity, which, sharpened by his scientific training, produces accurate observations in geology, meteorology, and all aspects of natural history.

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  • FŪLĀD-ZEREH

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “[possessing] steel armor,” the name of a hideous demon in the story of Amīr Arsalān.

  • FŪMAN

    Marcel Bazin

    town and district in western Gīlān, 21 km west-southwest of Rašt, on the left bank of Gāzrūdbār river. An important town in medieval times, Fūman is again a commercial and administrative center, with a very active Tuesday market and a large tea-processing factory.

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  • FŪMANĪ, ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ

    Sholeh Quinn

    author of the Tārīḵ-e Gīlān, a local history of Gīlān covering the years 1517-1628.

  • FUMITORY

    M. H. Bokhari and W. Frey

    or šāhtara; term used for two species of plants of the genus Fumaria in Persia, Fumaria officinalis and Fumaria parviflora.

  • FUNERAL CUSTOMS

    Cross-reference

    See BURIAL; CORPSE.

  • FŪŠANJ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town of medieval eastern Khorasan, situated just to the south of the Harīrūd River, and variously described in the sources as being between six and ten farsaḵs to the west-southwest of Herat.

  • FŪŠANJĪ HERAVĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ,

    Gerhard Böwering

    correctly BŪŠANJĪ; b. Aḥmad b. Sahl (d. 958/959), an important exponent of the fetyān (javān-mardān) of Khorasan.

  • F~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter F entries.