Table of Contents

  • FARHANG Ī PAHLAVIG

    Cross-reference

    See FRAHANG Ī PAHLAWĪG.

  • FARHANG O ZENDAGĪ

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a periodical published in 28 issues from winter 1969 to spring 1978 by the Secretariat of the High Council of Culture and Art (Dabīr-ḵāna-ye Šūrā-ye ʿalī-e farhang o honar).

  • FARHANG, MĪRZĀ ABU’L-QĀSEM ŠĪRĀZĪ

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    (b. Shiraz, 1827; d. Shiraz, 1891), poet, scholar, and calligrapher.

  • FARHANG-E ĀNANDRĀJ

    Solomon Baevskiĭ

    a dictionary of the Persian language named in honor of the maharaja Ānand Gajapatī Rāj, the nineteenth century ruler of Vijayanagar in South India.

  • FARHANG-E ASADĪ

    Cross-reference

    See ASĀDĪ TŪSĪ; LOḠĀT-E FORS.

  • FARHANG-E EBRĀHĪMĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    Persian-language dictionary compiled by the well-known fifteenth century poet Ebrāhīm Qewām-al-Dīn Fārūqī.

  • FARHANG-E HAYĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See HAYĪM, SOLAYMĀN.

  • FARHANG-E ĪRĀN-ZAMĪN

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a research quarterly first published in Tehran in March 1953.

  • FARHANG-E JAHĀNGĪRĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    It took Ḥosayn Enjū twelve years to complete his dictionary (1005-17/1595-1608), which he named in honor of Jahāngīr. He produced a second edition in 1032/1622. The dictionary lists 9,830 words: 8,960 Persian; 630 Arabic; 140 Indian; and about a hundred entries of Turkic and Greek origin as well as words from various dialects.

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  • FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

    Kamran Talattof and EIr

    an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973.

  • FARHANG-E NĀFĪSĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See NĀẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

  • FARHANG-E NEẒĀM

    Cross-reference

    See DĀʿĪ-AL-ESLĀM.

  • FARHANG-E QAWWĀS

    Solomon Bayevsky

    a Persian dictionary compiled probably no later than 1315 by the founder of Persian lexicography in India, the poet and writer Faḵr-al-Dīn Mobārakšāh Qawwās Ḡaznavī, or Faḵr-e Qawwās, known also as Kamāngar.

  • FARHANG-E RAŠĪDĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1654 by the poet and scholar ʿAbd-al- Rašīd b. ʿAbd-al-Ḡafūr Ḥosaynī Tattavī.

  • FARHANG-E SORŪRĪ

    Solomon Bayevsky

    a dictionary of the Persian language, also known as Majmaʿ al-fors and Loḡat-e Sorūrī, compiled by the Persian poet Moḥammad-Qāsem Sorūrī.

  • FARHANG-E TĀRĪḴĪ-E ZABĀN-E FĀRSĪ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    a comprehensive historical dictionary of the Persian language, of which only one volume has been published so far.

  • FARHANG-E WAFĀʾI

    Solomon Bayevsky

    or Resāla-ye Wafāʾi; a Persian lexicon of some 2,425 mainly literary terms, compiled by Ḥosayn Wafāʾi in 1527 and dedicated to the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb I.

  • FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ

    Habib Borjian

    (Farhangi zaboni tojikī, Tajik Language Dictionary), a descriptive dictionary of classical Persian in two volumes (1,900 pages).

  • FARHANG-E ZAFĀNGŪYĀ WA JAHĀNPŪYĀ

    Cross-reference

    See BADR-AL-DĪN EBRĀHĪM.

  • FARHANGESTĀN

    M. A. Jazayeri

    a term for “academy” which gained currency in the 20th century to denote an association of scholars.

  • FARHANGI ZABONI TOJIKĪ

    Cross-reference

    See FARHANG-E ZABĀN-E TĀJĪKĪ.

  • FARĪBORZ

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Key Kāvūs.

  • FARĪBORZ

    Cross-Reference

    b. Salār. See ŠARVĀNŠĀH.

  • FARĪD

    EIr

    b. Shaikh Maʿrūf BHAKKARĪ, 16-17th century author of an important biographical dictionary in Persian of Mughal notables, the Ḏaḵīrat al-ḵawanīn.

  • FARĪD ESFARĀYENĪ, Malek-al-Šoʿarāʾ Ḵᵛāja FARĪD-AL-DĪN AḤWAL

    Ḏabīḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    or Eṣfahānī (d. after 1264), 13th-century Persian poet.

  • FARĪD KĀTEB

    Sheila S. Blair

    scribe active in Shiraz in the 16th century.

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN GANJ-E ŠAKAR

    Cross-Reference

    See GANJ-E ŠAKAR.

  • FARĪD-AL-DĪN, ABŪ’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ ŠARVĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FAHHĀD.

  • FARĪDAN

    Mīnū Yūsofnežād

    a county (šahrestān) located at the foot of the Zagros mountains in the western part of Isfahan province, bordered on the north by Ḵᵛānsār, on the northwest by Alīgūdarz (in Lorestān province), on the west by the county of Farīdūn-æahr, on the east by Najafābād, and on the south by Šahr-e Kord and Fārsān.

  • FARĪDŪN

    Cross-Reference

    See FERĒDŪN.

  • FARIGHUNIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

  • FARĪḠŪNIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E FARĪḠŪN.

  • FARĪZANDĪ

    Cross-reference

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS; see also NAṬANZĪ.

  • FARḴĀR

    Erwin F. Grötzbach

    river, valley, and administrative district (woloswālī), in Taḵār province, northeastern Afghanistan.

  • FARMĀN

    Bert G. Fragner

    “decree, command, order, judgement.” The term often denotes a royal or governmental decree, that is a public and legislative document promulgated in the name of the ruler or another person  holding elements of sovereignty.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ

    Ahmad Ashraf

    lit. “giver of an order,” i.e., ruler, commander; an epithet with three usages in the Safavid and Qajar periods.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN MĪRZĀ

    Cyrus Mir and EIr

    (1858-1939), Qajar prince-governor, military commander, skillful politician, head of various ministries, and prime minister. He managed to sail successfully the stormy sea of Persian politics for several decades while the entire social and political landscape was undergoing dramatic change.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FEREYDŪN MĪRZĀ

    ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN NAVĀʾĪ

    (d. Mašhad, 1854), fifth son of the Qajar prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā and elder brother of Solṭān Morād Mīrzā Ḥosām-al-Salṭana.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, FĪRŪZ MĪRZĀ NOṢRAT-AL-DAWLA

    Shireen Mahdavi

    (1817-1886), sixteenth son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā and grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. His political and military career flourished in the reigns of his brother Moḥammad Shah (834-48) and his nephew Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96), under whom he held numerous governorships and other prominent posts.

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  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ MĪRZĀ

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    (1789-1835), the fifth son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah, long-time governor of Fārs, and briefly the self-styled king of Persia.

  • FARMĀNFARMĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN NĀṢER-AL-MOLK

    ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN NAVĀʿĪ

    (b. ca. 1828-29; d. Tehran, 1887), high-ranking official in the reign of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah (1848-96).

  • FARMING

    Mohammad-Said Nouri Naini

    in Persia. In the mid-1990s Persian agriculture accounted for over 25 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 25 percent of employment, and 33 percent of non-oil exports. It also met 75 percent of domestic food requirements and 90 percent of the needs of agricultural industries in the country.

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  • FARNAH

    Cross-reference

    See FARR(AH).

  • FARNŪDSĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See NAẒEM-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ.

  • FARŌḴŠI

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    the name of a Zoroastrian ceremony for departed souls, also called Farošīn, in Irani Zoroastrian dialect Parošīn.

  • FARR(AH)

    Gherardo Gnoli

    Avestan Xᵛarənah, lit. “glory,” according to the most likely etymology and the semantic function reconstructed from its occurrence in various contexts and phases of the Iranian languages.

  • FARR(AH) ii. ICONOGRAPHY OF FARR(AH)/XᵛARƎNAH

    Abolala Soudavar

    The core myth that reveals the characteristics of farr, and its function, is the myth of Jamšid as reflected in the Avesta. Empowered by his farr, Jamšid rules the world, but loses it when he strays from the righteous path. After two preliminary encounters, his farr is taken by a falcon.

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  • FARRANT, FRANCIS

    Denis Wright

    , Colonel (b. 1803 [?]; d. 1868), British soldier and diplomat.

  • FARRĀŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See CITIES iii.

  • FARROḴ KHAN KĀŠĪ, AMĪN-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ṬĀLEB FARROḴ KHAN.